Pachyseris gemmae   Nemenzo,  1955 (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Agariciidae

Description
Color: Brown

Colonies have both horizontal and upright irregularly folded fronds. Valleys are parallel to frond margins except towards the base of fronds where they become irregular. Colonies are wavy. Columellae are wall-like and clearly fused with the septo-costae.

Similar species: May be similar to tiered forms of Pachyseris speciosa except that fronds are usually more vertical; columellae are similar to those of Pachyseris rugosa although less conspicuous.


Synonym (s)
Pachyseris gemmae Nemenzo, 1955

Common Name (s)
• Serpent coralĀ  (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Coral diseases)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 12.53) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Bakus, JG (1993) Coral reef ecosystems Oxford and IBH publishing CO. PVT. LTD 232 pp Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Reef Show Available at - http://reefshow.com/
  • poppeimages Available at - http://www.poppe-images.com/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972

Page last updated on:2013-05-07

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