Caulerpa taxifolia   (M. Vahl) C. Agardh,  1817 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Chlorophyta
Class: Bryopsidophyceae
Order:Bryopsidales
Family:Caulerpaceae

Description
Size: Frond diameter is 6-8 mm and frond length is usually 3-15 cm in the shallows, 40-60 cm in deeper situations but can grow up to 2.8 m in height.

Color: Light green

Thallus form and type: Ramiform and creeping

Substratum: Intertidal rocks, calcareous stones

Occurrence: Lower mid littoral zone, common in tide pools

Season: November-April

Caulerpa taxifolia is a macoalga with upright leaf-like fronds arising from creeping stolons. The fronds are flattened laterally and the small side branchlets are constricted at the base (where they attach to the midrib of each frond), are opposite in their attachment to the midrib (as opposed to alternating) and curve upwards and narrow towards the tip. The invasive aquarium clone is morphologically identical to native populations of this species.

Caulerpenyne, a toxin produced by Caulerpa taxifolia deters other grazing species.


Synonym (s)
Fucus taxifolius M. Vahl, 1802
(Homotypic synonym)
Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, 1817

Common Name (s)
• Caulerpa (English)
• Killer Alga (English)
• Sea Weed (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
Predator:  Oxynoe olivacea, Lobiger serradifalci and Elysia subornata

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Pamban Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.23) (Long: 79.22) INDIA
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 79.25) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.78) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.27) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha (Lat: 22.47) (Long: 69.08) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval (Lat: 20.9) (Long: 70.37) INDIA
• Gujarat, Saurashtra (Lat: 21.97) (Long: 70.5) INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Konkan Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchendur (Lat: 8.48) (Long: 78.12) INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 79.12) INDIA
• Karnataka, Mangalore (Lat: 12.87) (Long: 74.88) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 10) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Gujarat, Jalleshwar shore (Lat: 20.9) (Long: 70.37) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari (Lat: 8.08) (Long: 77.57) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Coast (Lat: 18.17) (Long: 66.17) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 11.12) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 10.5) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8) (Long: 93.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Sallimundal INDIA (Record: 2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Valimunai INDIA (Record: 2003)
• BANGLADESH
• INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• Addu Atoll MALDIVES
• MAURITIUS
• PAKISTAN
• SEYCHELLES
• SRI LANKA
• TANZANIA
• YEMEN
• Gujarat, Adatra reef INDIA (Record: 11/1990-03/1991)
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 09/1995-11/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 78.13) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai-Dhanushkodi INDIA (Record: 12/1990-01/1991)
• Gujarat, Okha Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Adatra Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Hanumandandi Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port INDIA (Record: 05/2004-06/2004, 01/2005-04/2005)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Mayabunder INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Havelock INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Neill Island INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 12/1958-05/1959) (Depth: 12-17 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.24) (Long: 83.27) INDIA (Record: 03/2008-02/2009)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.75) (Long: 83.35) INDIA (Record: 03/2008-02/2009)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 08/1986-05/1987)
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Katchall INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.73) INDIA (Record: 10/2003-12/2003)
• Karnataka INDIA (Record: 2005-2006)
• Gujarat, Saurashtra INDIA
• Gujarat, Porbandar (Lat: 21.63) (Long: 69.6) INDIA
• Gujarat, Samiani Island INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Subbaramaiah, K (1971) Distribution of marine organisms on the Jalleshwar shore, Veraval Seaweed Research and Utilization 1 19-29 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mohan, JM (1978) Ecological studies on the fauna associated with economic seaweeds of south India-1. species composition, feeding habits and interrelationships Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Tamil Nadu 3 17 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Salim, KM (1964) The distribution of marine algae along Karachi coast Botanica Marina Cram, De Gruyter and Co. Hamburg, Germany 7 183-197 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murthy, MS; Bhattacharya, M and Radia, P (1978) Ecological studies on the intertidal algae at Okha (India) Botanica marina Cram,De Gruyter and Co., Hamburg, Germany 21 381-386 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Parekh, RG; Maru, LV and Dave, MJ (1977) Chemical composition of green seaweeds of Saurashtra coast Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 20 359-362 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Salim, KM (1964) The distribution of marine algae along Karachi coast Botanica Marina Cram, De Gruyter and Co. Hamburg, Germany 7 183-197 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dhinesh, G; Sekar, M and Kannan, R (2007) Nutritive properties of the seaweeds of Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu, India 29(1 & 2) 125-132 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Silva, PC; Basson, PW and Moe, RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean University of California Press 79 1259 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Krishnamurthy, V (2006) Key to the taxonomic identification of green and brown marine algae of India Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 1 1-146 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dave, MJ; Parekh, RG and Iyengar, ERR (1996) Amino acid of Caulerpa taxifolia Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 18(1-2) 15-19 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roslin, AS; Rosakutty, PJ and Lazarus, S (1997) A study on the flora and fauna of Arockiapuram Coast of Tamil Nadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 55-61 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hewitt, CL; Martin, RB; Sliwa, C; McEnnulty, FR; Murphy, NE; Jones, T and Cooper, S (Eds.) (2002) Caulerpa taxifolia species summary National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Date of access: 2/3/2010 Web publication Available at - http://crimp.marine.csiro.au/nimpis
  • Selvaraj, R and Selvaraj, R (1997) Distribution and diversity of seaweeds in Tiruchendur and Idinthakarai Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 115-123 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Chennubhotla, VSK; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR; Pillai, SK; Muniyandi, K; Rao, KR; Rao, PVS; Thomas, PC; Zaidi, SH and Subbaramaiah, K (1998) Seaweed resources and distribution in deep waters from Dhanushkodi to Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu, India 20(1&2) 141-151 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gopalakrishnan, P (1970) Some observations on the shore ecology of the Okha Coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin, India 120(1&2) 15-34 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Thakur, MC; Reddy, CRK and Jha, B (2008) Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India Journal of Earth System Science Springer 117(3) 211–218 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/t71wx618175657h3/fulltext.pdf
  • Gopinathan, CP and Panigrahy, R (1983) Seaweed resources Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 47-51 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/917/1/Bulletin_No_34-8.pdf
  • Varma, RP (1960) Flora of the pearl beds off Tuticorin Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 2 (2) 221-225 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1405/1/Prasanna_221-225.pdf
  • Lakshmi, KP and Rao, GMN (2009) Some numerical studies on marine algae of Visakhapatnam coast Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization Phyco Spectrum Inc 1 (1) 60–85 Available at - phycospectrum.com/paper6vol1no1.pdf
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kaladharan, P and Kalimuthu, S (1989) Seaweed and seagrass resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 162-176 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Chennubhotla, VSK; Ramachandrudu, BS; Kaladharan, P and Dharmaraja, SK (1988) Seaweed resources of Kerala coast Bulletin of the Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries CMFRI 7 69-74 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7537/1/565-BULLETION_OF_THE__DEPT._OF_AQUAFIC_BIOLOGY_AND_FISHERIES_UNI._OF_KERALA.pdf
  • James, PSBR (1987) Distribution of the important Indian marine algae Seaweed research and utilization in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 41 100-111 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8209/1/Bulletin_No_41.pdf
  • Jagtap, T.G. (1992) Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Andaman Sea. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources 21(1) 56-58 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Chennubhotla, VSK; Najmuddin, M; Ramalingam, JR and Kaliaperumal, N (1990) Biochemical composition of some marine algae from Mandapam coast, Tamil Nadu National symposium on research and development in marine fisheries, CMFRI Bulletin CMFRI 44(2) 442-446 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3101/1/Article_25.pdf
  • SreekalaDevi, R.; James, J.E.; Babu, S.S (2004) Distribution of marine macroalgae in Idinthakarai and Vizhinjam coasts - A comparative study. Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Marine Fisheries-623520, Tamil Nadu, India 26(1-2) 29-32. Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Kaladharan, P; Zacharia, PU and Vijayakumaran, K (2011) Coastal and marine floral biodiversity along the Karnataka coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 53 (1) 121 - 129 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8710/1/121--129--P._Kaladharan.pdf
  • Kaladharan, P; Zacharia, PU and Vijayakumaran, K (2011) Coastal and Marine floral biodiversity along the Karnataka coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India 53(1) 121-129 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Jha B, Reddy C.R.K, Thakur M C and Rao M (2009) Seaweeds of India The Diversity and Distribution of seaweeds of Gujarat Coast Springer 211pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-11-29

Back to Search