Strongylura strongylura   (van Hasselt,  1823) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Max. size: 40.0 cm SL

Color: Caudal fin light with a prominent round black spot near its base. Dorsal fin lobe and distal margin of caudal fin yellow in live adults, anterior margin of anal fin orange; Bluish green above, silvery below.

Body shape eel-like. Round in cross section. Head 2.5-2.6 in standard length, 2.8-2.95 in total length. Depth of body 15.0-16.5 in standard length, 17.0-18.7 in total length. Eye diameter 2.8-3.2 in postorbital length of head, 7.5-8.5 in snout, 5.0-5.6 in distance between ventral insertion and anal fin origin and a little less than interorbital space. Canines small and directed slightly backwards. Origin of dorsal fin opposite to 2nd or 3rd branched anal ray. Pectoral fin equal to or a little shorter than postorbital part of head. Ventral fin arising midway between anterior border of eye and base of caudal fin. Caudal fin somewhat rounded. Dorsal fin rays 12-15, anal fin rays 15-18. Caudal peduncle without lateral keels. Predorsal scales few and relatively large, 100-130. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 15, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 15 - 18, Vertebrae: 59 - 65. Eyes small. Upper and lower jaws greatly elongated and studded with sharp teeth.

Oviparous, dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface. Breeds in rainy and winter season.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Belone caudimaculata Day, 1870
Belone strongylura Day, 1889
Belone strongylurus Day, 1877
Tylosurus strongylura (van Hasselt, 1823)
Belone caudimacula Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Belone oculata Leschenault, 1846
(Junior synonym)
Belone saigonensis Sauvage, 1879
(Junior synonym)
Belone strongylura van Hasselt, 1823
(Senior synonym)
Strongylura caudimaculata van Hasselt, 1824
(Junior synonym)
Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt, 1823)
(Senior synonym)
Tylosurus strongylura (van Hasselt, 1823)
(Senior synonym)
Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823)
(Senior synonym)
Belone strongylurus van Hasselt, 1823
Strongylurus strongylura (van Hasselt, 1823)
Tylosurus strongilurus (van Hasselt, 1823)
Tylosurus strongylorus (van Hasselt, 1823)

Common Name (s)
• Pambankoli (Malayalam)
• Pallankoli (Malayalam)
• Pallankoil (Malayalam)
• Oola (Malayalam)
• Moakoli (Malayalam)
• Keran (Malayalam)
• Coplah (Malayalam)
• Ayakorakoli (Malayalam)
• Dethuntholi (Mahl)
• Surali (Kannada)
• Konthe (Kannada)
• Kanda (Kannada)
• Kunga (Gujarati)
• Kagada (Gujarati)
• Spottail Needlefish (English)
• Roundtail Needlefish (English)
• Gar Fish (English)
• Full Beak Gar Fish (English)
• Full Beak (English)
• Ooshee Colarchee (Tamil)
• Nedumurrel (Tamil)
• Marakola (Tamil)
• Coomeen (Tamil)
• Gania (Oriya)
• Tol (Marathi)
• Sathamurrel (Tamil)
• Vadyamurrel (Tamil)
• Vellaimurrel (Tamil)
• Kuddera (Telugu)
• Wadlah Muku (Telugu)
• Wahleh Kuddera (Telugu)
• Wodlah Muku (Telugu)
• Gania
• Spot Tail Needlefish
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Pelagic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Finfish


• Maharashtra, Satpati beach INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Maharashtra, Kila Bander INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• karnataka INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sarkar, SK and Bhattacharya, AK (2003) Conservation of biodiversity of the coastal resources of Sundarbans, Northeast India: an integrated approach through environmental education Marine Pollution Bulletin Elsevier 47(1-6) 260-264 Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean; (Fishing area 51). FAO, Rome 1 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Mohan, RSL and Murty, VS (1989) Other fin-fish resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 65-72 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-24

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