Protoperidinium depressum   (Bailey, 1850) Balech,  1974 (Dinoflagellate)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Chromista
Phylum:Myzozoa
Class: Peridinea
Order:Peridiniida
Family:Protoperidiniaceae

Image copyrights: algaeBASE

Description
Large cell with prominent apical horn and two divergent antapical horns. Epitheca excaveted and concave; almost as deep as wide. Surface reticulated. Ortho, quadra. Cingulum descending >2x. Phagotrophic. It is both a heterotrophic (eat other organisms) as wel as a autotrophic (photosynthetic) species.

Reproduction is general for group: both sexual and asexual.

A large and distinctive dinoflagellate which is found in temperate plankton all through the year. It is distinguished from rather similar species (like Protoperidinium claudicans) by being almost as wide, at the girdle, as the cell is long.


Synonym (s)
Peridinium depressum Bailey, 1854
(Homotypic synonym)
Protoperidinium marinum Lindemann, 1925
Protoperidinium parallelum Broch, 1906

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(Known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
Predator:  Marine microorganisms and animal larvae

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• West Bengal, Prentice Island INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Estuary INDIA (Record: 04/1995-01/1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangroves (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA (Record: 07/2008-12/2008)
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 09/2003)
• Karnataka, Netravati INDIA (Record: 09/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.39) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.82) (Long: 79.88) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)

Literature Source(s)
  • R, Jyothibabu Ecobiogeography, spatial and temporal variations of microzooplankton along the east coast of India (Ph. D thesis) 235 pp Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Krishnamurthy, K; Santhanam, R and Jothi, K (1977) The Dinophyta from Porto Novo, south India Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Marine Fisheries-623520, Tamil Nadu, India 2 64-67 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Santra, SC; Pal, UC and Choudhury, A (1991) Marine phytoplankton of the mangrove delta region of West Bengal, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 33(1-2) 292-307 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Dodge, JD (1985) Atlas of dinoflagellates Farrand Press, London 1-119 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Banerjee, A (1999) Certain aspects of ecological preferences of plankton of Sunderban Estuary, West Bengal, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 41(1&2) 107-110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Steidinger, KA and Tangen, K (1997) Dinoflagellates Identifying marine phytoplankton Academic Press, San Diego, USA 387-584 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kannan, L and Vasantha, K (1992) Microphytoplankton of the Pitchavaram mangals, southeast coast of India: species composition and population density Hydrobiologia Springer 247 77-86 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00008206
  • Anantharaman, P; Thirumaran, G; Arumugam, R; Kannan, RR; Hemalatha, A; Kannathasan, A; Sampathkumar, P and Balasubramanian, T (2010) Monitoring of Noctiluca bloom in Mandapam and Keelakarai coastal waters, southeast coast of India Recent Research in Science and Technology 2(10) 51-58 Available at - http://recent-science.com/article/viewFile/4386/2174
  • Jyothibabu, R; Devi, CRA; Madhu, NV; Sabu, P; Jayalakshmy, KV; Jacob, J; Habeebrehman, H; Prabhakaran, MP; Balasubramanian, T and Nair, KKC (2008) The response of microzooplankton (20-200 μm m) to coastal upwelling and summer stratification in the southeastern Continental Shelf Research Elsevier 28 653-671 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/1040
  • Rajkumar, M; Perumal, P; Prabu, VA; Perumal, NV and Rajasekar, KT (2009) Phytoplankton diversity in Pichavaram mangrove waters from south-east coast of India Journal of Environmental Biology Triveni Enterprises 30(4) 489-498 Available at - http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200907_jul09/paper_04.pdf
  • Manikannan, R; Asokan, S and Ali, AHMS (2011) Studies on species composition of plankton in the great Vedaranyam swamp of the Point Calimere wildlife sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI 3(4) 283-289 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms3(4)11/4.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-02-10

Back to Search