Kandelia candel   (L.) Druce  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Rhizophoraceae

Image copyrights: National Anping Harbor Historic Park

Description
Small trees, up to 6 m tall, much branched, branches erect, thick, brittle, stem base buttressed with stilt roots. Leaves 8-12 x 2.5-4.5 cm, oblong, dark green above, light reddish-brown beneath, rounded at apex, obtuse at base. Flowers in axillary dichotomously branched cymes, 8-9 flowered; flowers 1-1.5 cm long, white; calyx 12-15 mm long, 5 lobed, reflexed; petals 5, each 8-10 mm long, each divided into numerous capillary segments. Fruits about 3 cm long, conic-ovoid, 1 celled, single seeded. Hypocotyle 30-60 cm long, spindle shaped, pointed towards the radical end.

Flowering and fruiting from April-September, March-July (West Bengal), throughout the year(Orissa, Kerala), December-November (Karnataka), October-July (Goa), February-December (Maharashtra).

Kandelia candel is monotypic and is readily recognised from the other species of Rhizophoraceae by its linear-oblong, reflexed calyx-lobes, indefinite number of stamens and the long, smooth hypocotyle.


Synonym (s)
Kandelia rheedii Whight & Arnold

Common Name (s)
• Goria (Hindi)
• Goria (Bengali)
• Bakul Rasunia (Oriya)
• Thuvar Kandan (Telugu)
• Garia
• Sindhuguan
• Thavarkandan
• Nallakandel
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(It is a potential source of firewood and charcoal and its leaves are used as fodder. The extracts of bark, flower and leaves are used to cure diabetes. Bark dye is also used for enhancing the durability of fishing nets.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Karnataka, Gangavali Estuary (Lat: 14.6) (Long: 74.6) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• MYANMAR
• BANGLADESH
• West Bengal INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Dhargalkar, V and Ingole, B (2005) Survey of inventorization of coastal biodiversity at three estuarine sites along the central west coast of India 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ganeshaiah, KN and Shaanker, RU (2003) Sasya Sahiyadri: Distribution, taxonomy, and diversity of plants of Western Ghats Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Jagtap, TG; Untawale, AG and Inamdar, SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 23(2) 90-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khaleel, KM (2005) Diversity, indigenous traditional knowledge and consequences of destruction of mangroves on the banks of Valapatanam river kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and developmen 89-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal www.TFLJournal.org Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Trees_Life_J_3_5pp.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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