Rhizophora mucronata   Lamk.  1794 (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Rhizophoraceae

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Description
Trees up to 20 m tall with many upwardly growing branches; leaf scars prominent, close; stem base supported by numerous branches stilt-roots. Leaves 10-18 x 4-10 cm, broadly elliptic or ovate-oblong, coriaceaous, abruptly acute or blunt with a rolled up tip (mucro) at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers in axillary cymes,4-8 in number, pedicellate, cream colored, fragrant; calyx 12-14 mm long, ovate; petals 9-10 mm long, lanceolate, fleshy, villose; stamens 6-8 mm long, 8 in number, 4 episepalous, 4 epipetalous; style 1-2 mm; free part of ovary emerging above the disk. Hypocotyle 30-65 cm long, cylindrical.

Flowering and fruiting during July-October, February- December ((West Bengal), November-April (Orissa), April-August (Andhra Pradesh), July-September (Tamil Nadu), August-April (Karnataka), throughout the year (Kerala, Goa), September-June (Maharashtra).

Rhizophora mucronata is readily recognised from Rhizophora apiculata from its axillary cymes with more than two flowers, hairy petals and 8 stamens.


Synonym (s)
Rhizophora mucronata var. typica Schimp,

Common Name (s)
• Bhara (Bengali)
• Mangrove (English)
• Bhora (English)
• Mangle (English)
• Kandaal (Kannada)
• Kandel (Kannada)
• Kandaale (Kannada)
• Korap (Malayalam)
• Venkantal (Malayalam)
• Pikatal (Malayalam)
• Bakau (Malayalam)
• Panachikandal (Malayalam)
• Belukap (Malayalam)
• Panachikantal (Malayalam)
• Kamo (Marathi)
• Bogo (Marathi)
• Hariya (Marathi)
• Peykkandal (Tamil)
• Sorippinnai (Tamil)
• Mukrantana Upoo Poma (Tamil)
• Manjiponna (Telugu)
• Uppu (Telugu)
• Ponna (Telugu)
• Adaviponna (Telugu)
• Adavipenna (Telugu)
• Uppuponna (Telugu)
• Poma (Telugu)
• Kimro (Urdu)
• Kunro (Urdu)
• Long Fruited Stilted Mangrove (English)
• Garjan
• Rai
• Surapinnai
• Pikantal
• Pranthan Kandel
• Kamodumbi
• Karod
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Ecosystem balance
(Its wood forms a potential source of tannin and finds application in plywood, adhesive, dye bark, cellophane, rayon, ferro-alloys, cellulose acetate industries and as a substitute for petroleum coke for calcium carbide, besides being used as fuel wood and in medicines, its leaves are used as fodder. The bark is a powerful astringent. leaves is used to cure diabetes. In Indo-China, the bark is given in haemorrhage and angina. It is rich in polyphenols. Acid polysaccharides from the bark blocked the virus binding to cells as mechanism of action for its anti-HIV activity.
The intricate stems with several stilt roots are effective as tide brakers and check land run off and form an ideal niche for several faunal species.
Leaves and fruits are used to treat ear diseases. the germinating seeds of the are eaten by locals after boiling. Tannin, gum , honey etc. are obtained from this plant. Wood is used for making boats.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable

Biogeography


• Karnataka, Gangavali Estuary (Lat: 14.84) (Long: 74.49) INDIA
• Goa, Terekhol Estuary (Lat: 15.72) (Long: 73.7) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Kalavali Estuary (Lat: 16.12) (Long: 73.68) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.8) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Island INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi and Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.4) (Long: 79.73) INDIA (Record: 11/2004)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan, Kolamb creek INDIA (Record: 1998-1999)
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Achra INDIA
• Maharashtra, Vikroli INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Kerala, Mangalvan (Lat: 9.98) (Long: 76.26) INDIA (Depth: 1 mts)
• Kerala, Mangalvan (Lat: 10) (Long: 76.3) INDIA (Depth: 1 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 06/2007)
• Karnataka, Udyavara Mangrove INDIA (Record: 10/1999, 03/2000)
• Karnataka, Nethravathi Mangrove (Lat: 12.83) (Long: 74.83) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 76.6) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 79.88) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 20.88) (Long: 72.73) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 21.01) (Long: 72.91) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wandoor INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Sipighat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Manjeri INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Kadakachang INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wright Myo INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Burma Nallah INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Corbyn's Cove INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Garacharma INDIA
• Goa, Baga Creek INDIA
• Goa, Nerul Creek INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Middle Andaman, Bamboo Tikri INDIA (Record: 09/2004-10/2004)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Andaman, Lakshmipur INDIA (Record: 11/2004-12/2004)
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, New Island INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Car Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Katchall INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

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