Sonneratia caseolaris   (L.) Engler,  1897 (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Myrtales
Family:Lythraceae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Tress 6-15 m tall, small trees up to 6 m tall, bark white; branches low and spreading, pneumatophores many, corky, arising from the horizontal roots. Leaves 5-10 x 3-5 cm, nearly sessile, elliptic-oblong or obovate, mucronate at apex, much attenuated at base. Flowers 4-6 cm across reddish-purple, solitary and terminal; calyx-tube flattened, 6 lobed; petals 6, linear oblong, 2 cm long, membranous; ovary depressed-globose; style nearly 3 cm long, stigma capitates. Fruits 4-6 cm in diameter, depressed globose with persistent calyx and pointed style.

Flowering and fruiting during March-July, March-October (West Bengal), March-September (Orissa), throughout the year (Karnataka)


Synonym (s)
Sonneratia acida L.f.
Sonneratia lanceolata Bl.

Common Name (s)
• Archa (Bengali)
• Ora (Bengali)
• Orcha (English)
• Archaka (Hindi)
• Kandale (Kannada)
• Vilatti (Malayalam)
• Padada (Malayalam)
• Tirala (Malayalam)
• Perepat (Malayalam)
• Blutti (Malayalam)
• Blatti (Malayalam)
• Thirala (Malayalam)
• Chipi (Marathi)
• Kinnai (Tamil)
• Keora (Bengali)
• Pedda Kalingi (Telugu)
• Ora
• Orua
• Blatti Thirala
• Puzhamunja
• Chakkarakandel
• Chakkarakkandal (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its stem is used for paper pulp, matches, and as poles; leaves as fodder; its fruits are used as vegetable. Its soft pneumatophores are reportedly used as a substitute for cork. Fruit extract of the species is used to stop bleeding. The fruit is used for human consumption and the wood is used as firewoods.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• Karnataka, Gangavali Estuary (Lat: 14.84) (Long: 74.49) INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi and Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Andaman INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar INDIA
• Maharashtra, Achra INDIA
• INDIA
• Karnataka, Udyavara Mangrove INDIA (Record: 10/1999, 03/2000)
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Kerala, Ashtamudi INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Jambu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Dhargalkar, V and Ingole, B (2005) Survey of inventorization of coastal biodiversity at three estuarine sites along the central west coast of India 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ganeshaiah, KN and Shaanker, RU (2003) Sasya Sahiyadri: Distribution, taxonomy, and diversity of plants of Western Ghats Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Jagtap, TG; Untawale, AG and Inamdar, SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 23(2) 90-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Yeragi, SG; Babu, KN and Yeragi, SS (2000) Structure and species distribution of mangrove forest at Uran Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 200-204 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
  • Maria, GL; and Sridhar, KR (2003) Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India Fungal Diversity Fungal Diversity Press 14 109-126 Available at - www.fungaldiversity.org/fdp/sfdp/14-9.pdf
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Untawale, AG; Dwivedi, SN and Singbal, SYS (1973) Ecology of mangroves in Mandovi & Zuari estuaries & the interconnecting Cumbarjua canal of Goa Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR 2 47-53 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, EJ (2005) Management of river basins in relation to coastal wetlands: case studies from Indian subcontinent kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 21-47 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khaleel, KM (2005) Diversity, indigenous traditional knowledge and consequences of destruction of mangroves on the banks of Valapatanam river kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and developmen 89-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-11-24

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