Sonneratia alba   J. E. Smith,  1816 (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Myrtales
Family:Lythraceae

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Description
Small trees up to 5 m tall, much branched, pneumatophores many, corky. Leaves glabrous, coriaceous, 5-7.5 x 4-6 cm, elliptic, oblong or suborbicular, obtuse at apex, narrowed to a short petiole at base; petiole 3-6 mm long. Flowers 3-5 cm across, white; calyx-tube cup shaped, 6-8 lobed, lobes obscure in flower, distinct in fruit, petals white, small, ovary depressed globose; style up to 4 cm long, stigma capitate. Fruit 3 cm in diameter, obconical with persistent calyx and pointed style.

Flowering and fruiting during April-September, throughout the year (Orissa, Goa), February-October (Andhra Pradesh), February-May (Kerala), March-December (Karnataka), March-January (Maharashtra).

The species closely resembles Sonneratia caseolaris, but is distinguished from its ribbed calyx with obconical base.


Synonym (s)
Sonneratia griffithii Watson,

Common Name (s)
• Pedata (Marathi)
• Pidadu (Marathi)
• Orua
• Padda Kalinga
• Nakshathrakandel
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fruit extract is used for poultice in swellings and sprains. The wood is used as firewood.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• Karnataka, Gangavali Estuary (Lat: 14.84) (Long: 74.49) INDIA
• Goa, Terekhol Estuary (Lat: 15.72) (Long: 73.7) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Kalavali Estuary (Lat: 16.12) (Long: 73.68) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• SEYCHELLES
• MALAYSIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan, Kolamb creek INDIA (Record: 1998-1999)
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Ritchies Archipelago INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bamboo Flat INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Achra INDIA
• Goa, Baga Creek INDIA
• Goa, Nerul Creek INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Hukitola INDIA
• Orissa, Hukitola INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Dhargalkar, V and Ingole, B (2005) Survey of inventorization of coastal biodiversity at three estuarine sites along the central west coast of India 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ganeshaiah, KN and Shaanker, RU (2003) Sasya Sahiyadri: Distribution, taxonomy, and diversity of plants of Western Ghats Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Jagtap, TG; Untawale, AG and Inamdar, SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 23(2) 90-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Untawale, AG and Jagtap, TG (1989) Observations on marine macrophytes of the Republic of Seychelles Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 32 115-119 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Yeragi, SG; Babu, KN and Yeragi, SS (2000) Structure and species distribution of mangrove forest at Uran Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 200-204 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2001) Critical habitat information system of Malvan (Maharashtra-India) Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Department of Ocean Development, Government of India 29 pp Available at - http://www.icmam.gov.in/pub.htm
  • Starfish Available at - http://www.starfish.ch/
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Jagtap, TG; Desai, K and Rodrigues, R (2003) Coastal vegetation: patterns in a tourist region Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development TERI 131-150 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khaleel, KM (2005) Diversity, indigenous traditional knowledge and consequences of destruction of mangroves on the banks of Valapatanam river kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and developmen 89-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG; Naik, S and Nagle, VL (2001) Assessment of coastal wetland resources of central west coast, India, using LANDSAT data Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 29(3) 140-150 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/485/1/Photonirvachak_29_143.pdf
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Jagtap, T.G. (1992) Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Andaman Sea. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources 21(1) 56-58 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-11-24

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