Avicennia officinalis   Linnaeus  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Lamiales
Family:Acanthaceae

Image copyrights: www.NatureLoveYou.sg

Description
Moderate sized trees, up to 20 m high, stem up to 100 cm in diameter at base, bark smooth, whitish-grey lenticellate, peeling off papery; wood brown or grey, hard. Pneumatophores many, simple or forked, spongy, often hooked at apices. Leaves 6-10 x 3-6 cm, broadly ovate-oblong or obovate, coriaceous obtuse at apex, tapering at base, glabrous, shining above, minutely and densely brownish-pubescent benealh. Flowers yellow, small, 5-6 mm, in trichotomous sessile heads; ovary shortly hairy. Capsules 2.5-4 x 1.5-2 cm, ovoid, compressed, beaked at apex; seeds dark-green, shining, pubescent on one side, often germinating on the trees.
Sporadic in the inner mangrove areas; never forms pure stands. The leaves become black on drying. The wood is hard and heavy.

Flowering and fruiting: March - October (West Bengal), June - September (Orissa), July - October (Andhra Pradesh), May – December (Tamil Nadu), March – July (Kerala), January - September (Karnataka), February – November (Goa), April – August (Maharashtra).

Avicennia officinalis is readily recognized from the other Indian Avicennias by the large sized trees and obovate or ovate-oblong leaves which turn black on drying and almond-shaped fruits.


Synonym (s)
Avicennia tomentosa Willd.

Common Name (s)
• Bina (Bengali)
• Bani (Bengali)
• White Mangrove (English)
• Tavar (Gujarati)
• Timar (Gujarati)
• Baklananjhad (Gujarati)
• Cherian (Gujarati)
• Tavariyan (Gujarati)
• Uppati (Kannada)
• Ipati (Kannada)
• Upati (Konkani)
• Orei (Malayalam)
• Urppam (Malayalam)
• Uri (Malayalam)
• Tiwar (Marathi)
• Sagarodurga (Sanskrit)
• Tuvaraka (Sanskrit)
• Turvara (Sanskrit)
• Uppukkutti (Tamil)
• Madaipattai (Tamil)
• Karungarudal (Tamil)
• Vengandal (Tamil)
• Uppattam (Tamil)
• Kandal (Tamil)
• Upattha (Tamil)
• Mada (Telugu)
• Madda (Telugu)
• Erivogu (Telugu)
• Eriva (Telugu)
• Nallamada (Telugu)
• Gundumada (Telugu)
• Tellamada (Telugu)
• Tivar (Urdu)
• Kalo Baen (Bengali)
• Bain (Hindi)
• Kala Bani (Oriya)
• Dhala Baen (Oriya)
• Tivar (Marathi)
• Sada Bain
• Bada Bani
• Nalla Mada
• Kavikanda Maram
• Kandal
• Oeri
• Upatti
• Tiwar
• Cher
• Tawar
• Baen (Bengali)
• karungkandal (Tamil)
• Uppootti (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(The wood is hard, heavy and gives much heat for which it is extensively used for fuel wood purpose, building houses, furniture and boats. Its leaves are used as fodder to increase milk in cattle and the dry leaves are smoked for relief from asthma and the plant is used to cure leprosy. Its bark yields a dye and ash from its wood is used for washing and reportedly removes stains and blotches. The flowers are a rich source of honey. The kernel of the fruit is reportedly edible and the bark resin considered medicinal.
Tannin is obtained from the bark.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Karnataka, Gangavali Estuary (Lat: 14.84) (Long: 74.49) INDIA
• Goa, Terekhol Estuary (Lat: 15.72) (Long: 73.7) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Kalavali Estuary (Lat: 16.12) (Long: 73.68) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.8) INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• MYANMAR
• SRI LANKA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vashista estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vainateyam estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• West Bengal, Medinipur (Lat: 21.5) (Long: 87.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2002)
• West Bengal, Medinipur (Lat: 22.03) (Long: 88.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2002)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan, Kolamb creek INDIA (Record: 1998-1999)
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Achra INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Alibag INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Mangalvan (Lat: 9.98) (Long: 76.26) INDIA (Depth: 1 mts)
• Kerala, Mangalvan (Lat: 10) (Long: 76.3) INDIA (Depth: 1 mts)
• Karnataka, Udyavara Mangrove INDIA (Record: 10/1999, 03/2000)
• Karnataka, Nethravathi Mangrove (Lat: 12.83) (Long: 74.83) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 76.6) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 79.88) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.81) (Long: 79.71) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 11.01) (Long: 79.86) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 75.51) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.71) (Long: 75.55) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Goa, Baga Creek INDIA
• Goa, Nerul Creek INDIA
• Kerala, Ashtamudi INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Subarnarekha Mangrove Forest INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Poyya INDIA
• Kerala, Koshavankunnu INDIA
• Kerala, Chenthurutti INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Dhargalkar, V and Ingole, B (2005) Survey of inventorization of coastal biodiversity at three estuarine sites along the central west coast of India 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ganeshaiah, KN and Shaanker, RU (2003) Sasya Sahiyadri: Distribution, taxonomy, and diversity of plants of Western Ghats Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Jagtap, TG; Untawale, AG and Inamdar, SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 23(2) 90-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Veera, RA and Kathiresan, K (1990) Seasonal variation in gallotannin from mangroves Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 19 224-225 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Chandra, A and Chakraborty, SK (2008) Distribution, density and community ecology of macrobenthic intertidal polychaetes in the coastal tract of Midnapore, West Bengal, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 7-16 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Prasad, MBK and Ramanathan, AL (2009) Organic matter characterization in a tropical estuarine-mangrove ecosystem of India: Preliminary assessment by using stable isotopes and lignin phenols Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Elsevier 1-8 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.07.029
  • Yeragi, SG; Babu, KN and Yeragi, SS (2000) Structure and species distribution of mangrove forest at Uran Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 200-204 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • (2001) Critical habitat information system of Malvan (Maharashtra-India) Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Department of Ocean Development, Government of India 29 pp Available at - http://www.icmam.gov.in/pub.htm
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Dorothy, KP; Satyanarayan, B; Kalavathi, C; and Raman, AV (2003) Protozoa associated with leaf litter degradation in coringa mangrove forest, Kakinada Bay, East coast of India Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 32(1) 45-51 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4233
  • Balasubramanian, T and Khan, SA (Eds.) (2002) Mangroves of India State-of-the-art report Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Prabhakaran, N and Gupta, R (1990) Activity of soil fungi of Mangalvan, the mangrove ecosystem of Cochin backwater Fishery technology(India) Society of Fisheries Technologists, India 27 157-159 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/2430/2/Fish_Technol_27_157.pdf
  • Maria, GL; and Sridhar, KR (2003) Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India Fungal Diversity Fungal Diversity Press 14 109-126 Available at - www.fungaldiversity.org/fdp/sfdp/14-9.pdf
  • Sridhar, KR and Maria, GL (2006) Fungal diversity on mangrove woody litter Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae) Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 35(4) 318-325 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1531/1/IJMS%2035%284%29%20318-325.pdf
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, N; Kichenamourthy, S; Muthukumaran, J; Jayakanthan, M; Chandrasekar, M; Punetha, A and Sundar, D (2009) Diversity of true mangroves and their associates in the Pondicherry region of south India and development of a mangrove knowledgebase Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment Academic Journals 1 99-105 Available at - www.academicjournals.org/jene/.../Balachandran%20et%20al.htm
  • Bhatt, S; Shah, DG and Desai, N (2009) The mangrove diversity of Purna estuary, south Gujarat, India Tropical Ecology International Association for Ecology, Cambridge University Press. 50(2) 287-293 Available at - www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_50_2/J-09.pdf
  • Rao, GMN and Praygamurty, P (2010) Mangroves and associated Flora of Vashista and Vainateyam estuaries, A.P. India Notulae Scientia Biologicae University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine 2(4) 40-43 Available at - http://notulaebiologicae.ro/nsb/article/view/4877/5114
  • Jagtap, TG; Desai, K and Rodrigues, R (2003) Coastal vegetation: patterns in a tourist region Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development TERI 131-150 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, EJ (2005) Management of river basins in relation to coastal wetlands: case studies from Indian subcontinent kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 21-47 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khaleel, KM (2005) Diversity, indigenous traditional knowledge and consequences of destruction of mangroves on the banks of Valapatanam river kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and developmen 89-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Saritha, MK; Tessy, PP (2011) Mangroves of Poyya backwaters of Thrissur district, Kerala, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India 53(1) 8-13 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal www.TFLJournal.org Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Trees_Life_J_3_5pp.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-27

Back to Search