Galaxaura rugosa   (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux,  1816 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Florideophyceae

Image copyrights: Keoki and Yuko Stender

Plants bushy, to 5-7 cm tall, densely and widely dichotomously branched, the branches 1-2 mm diameter, the segments 2-10 mm long, terete, clearly transversely rugose, but otherwise smooth except that multicellular hairs occasionally appear in the older parts of the plant, lightly and superficially calcified, the filamentous medulla not calcified. Cortex of radially branched sequences of cells, the innermost depressed-spherical, or obovoid, sometimes lobed, 30-40 µ diameter, the 1-2 intermediate cells much smaller, oval to obovoid, the outermost flattened, firmly joined laterally into an epidermis, polyhedral in surface view and 18-32 µ diameter, 3 layered. Plants sexual.

Synonym (s)
Corallina rugosa Ellis & Solander, 1786
(Homotypic synonym)
Galaxaura annulata Lamouroux, 1816
Galaxaura coarctata Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura cuculligera Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura elongata J. Agardh, 1876
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura elongata Silva et al., 1996
Galaxaura glabriuscula Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura collabens J. Agardh, 1885
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura intricata Kjellman, 1900
Galaxaura lapidescens var. annuligera Piccone & Grunow, 1884
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura squalida Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Hololnema liebmannii Areschoug, 1854
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura subverticillat Silva et al., 1996
Galaxaura tomentosa Silva et al., 1996
Dichotomaria lapidescens (J. Ellis & Solander) Lamarck, 1816
(Heterotypic synonym)
Tubularia dichotoma Esper, 1830
Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, 1816
Corallina lapidescens Ellis & Solander, 1786
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, 1816
(Heterotypic synonym)
Microthoe lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Harvey, 1855
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura rugosa var. annulata (Lamouroux) Piccone, 1901
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura liebmannii (Areschoug) Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura tomentosa Kutzing, 1858
(Heterotypic synonym)
Microthoe tomentosa (Kutzing) Montagne & Millardet, 1862
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura collabens J. Agardh, 1876
Galaxaura flagelliformis Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura rudis Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellman, 1900
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura mauritiana Borgesen, 1949
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura obtusata Wynne, 1995
(Misapplied name)
Galaxaura pacifica Tanaka, 1935
(Heterotypic synonym)
Galaxaura subfruticulosa R. Chou, 1945
(Heterotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Rocky, Coastal


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 92.75) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Angria Bank (Lat: 19.45) (Long: 72.08) INDIA (Depth: -25 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.12) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 11.12) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 8) (Long: 75) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Island (Lat: 7) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Addu Atoll MALDIVES
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Nasr, AH (1940) The chorography of the marine algae inhabiting the northern part of the Red Sea coast 13-155 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Ambiye, V and Untawale, AG Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis et Sol.) Lamour. from India Seaweed Research and Utilization 14(2) 97-100 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Wynne, MJ and Jupp, BP (1998) The benthic marine algal flora of the Sultanate of Oman: new records Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter 41 40008 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at -
  • Papenfuss, GF; Mshigeni, KE and Chiang, YM (1982) Revision of the red algal genus Galaxaura with special reference to the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean Botanica Marina 25 401-444 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Clerk, OD; Coppejans, E; Schils,T; Verbruggen, H; Leliaert, F; Vriese, DT and Marie, D (2004) The marine red algae of Rodrigues (Mauritius, Indian Ocean) Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis 38 3021-3057 Available at -
  • Clercka, D; Engledowa, HR; Bolton, JJ; Anderson, RJ and Coppejans, E (2002) Twenty marine benthic algae new to South Africa, with emphasis on the flora of Kwazulu-Natal Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 45 413-431 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bolton, JJ; Oyieke, HA and Gwada, P (2007) The seaweeds of Kenya: Checklist, history of seaweed study, coastal environment, and analysis of seaweed diversity and biogeography South African Journal of Botany 73 76-88 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Silva, PC; Basson, PW and Moe, RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean University of California Press 79 1259 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Stender, GK and Stender, YO Available at -
  • Rao, MU (2006) Key to the identification of Indian red seaweeds Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario, volume 1. Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 46-140 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Taylor, WR (1972) Marine algae of the eastern tropical and subtropical coasts of the Americas University of Michigan Press 870 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kaladharan, P and Kalimuthu, S (1989) Seaweed and seagrass resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 162-176 Available at -
  • Srivastava, MN and Mehrotra, BN (1990) Algal status of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 145-149 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-08-24

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