Gymnura micrura   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Elasmobranchii
Order:Rajiformes
Family:Gymnuridae

Image copyrights: Christina Conrath

Description
Size: Max length 137 cm WD; common length 90 cm WD male/unsexed.

Color: Upper surface gray, brown, light green or purple with round spots. Lower surface white.

Broad, diamond-shaped ray with a very short tail lacking a dorsal spine. The disc is broad and its length is 2-2.2 times of width. Snout is obtuse and protruding. Front edges of disk concave. Tail with low dorsal and ventral finfolds and 3-4 dark crossbars; slender being 1.3-1.4 times of disc length with a small weak serrated spine. Spiracles opens upward, larger and close behind eyes. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins are absent.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct), internal live bearers. Ovoviparous (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures. Distinct pairing with embrace.


Synonym (s)
Gymnura micura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Pteroplatea micrura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Raja micrura Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Gymnura micura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Short Tailed Butterfly Ray (English)
• Short Tailed Lesser Butterfly Ray (English)
• Skeete (English)
• Smooth Butterfly Ray (English)
• Thappu Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Butterfly Ray (English)
• Diamond Skate (English)
• Lesser Butterfly Ray (English)
• Sankuch
• Shewta (Marathi)
• Peroom Tirik (Tamil)
• Tappor Kotti Tirike (Tamil)
• Tenkee Kunsal (Telugu)
• Tappu Cooti (Telugu)
• Chamali (Marathi)
• Pakat (Marathi)
• Perum - Tirike (Malayalam)
• Tappor kooti Tiriki (Malayalam)
• Advani - Tiriki (Tamil)
• Tenkee Kunsul (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Flesh is used for human consumption in fresh or salt cured form.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Demersal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Fish, shrimps, bivalve molluscs, crustaceans including mysids, shrimps, crabs, ray-finned fishes and sedentary polychaetes
IUCN Status:  Data Deficient

Biogeography


• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.93) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lagoon INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Sumatra INDONESIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Compagno, LJV; Last, PR; Stevens, JD and MNR, Alava (2005) Checklist of Philippine Chondrichthyes CSIRO Marine Laboratories 104 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Mishra, SS and Krishnan, S (2003) Marine fishes of Pondicherry and Karaikal Records of the zoological survey of india ZSI 53 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Florida Museum of Natural History Available at - http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4056/1/Special_Publn_95.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/808/1/Bulletin_No_33.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-10-10

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