Scoliodon laticaudus   Muller & Henle,  1838 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Max. size: 100.0 cm TL; at birth about 13 to 15 cm TL.

Color: Bronze grey above, white below, fins sometimes darker than body; no conspicuous markings.

Body slender and fusiform. Snout long and depressed. Upper labial furrow poorly developed, as a short crease directed at right angle from lower furrow, visible when mouth is closed. No interdorsal ridge. Lower precaudal pit indistinct.

Dioecious, internal fertilization, viviparous, with an unusual columnar placenta. Maternal and foetal placenta comprises the entire placenta. Transplacental nutrient transfer may be hemotrophic. Litter size varies from 1 to 14. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Max. age reported: 6 years

Synonym (s)
Carcharias macrorhynchos Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias muelleri Muller & Henle, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias palasoora Bleeker, 1853
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias sorrahkowah Bleeker, 1853
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias sorrakowah Cuvier, 1817
(Ambiguous synonym)
Physodon muelleri (Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Junior synonym)
Scoliodon sorrakowa (Bleeker, 1853)
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias (Scoliodon) laticaudus Muller and Henle, 1841
Carcharias laticaudus Day, 1878
Carcharias mulleri Valenciennes: Day, 1878
Physodon mulleri (Valenciennes): Misra, 1969
Scoliodon sorrakowah (Cuvier): Misra, 1969
Scoliodon sorrakawah (Bleeker, 1853)

Common Name (s)
• Spadenose Shark (English)
• Palah Sorrah (Telugu)
• Nullian Sorrah (Telugu)
• Pillai Sorrah (Tamil)
• Son Mushi (Marathi)
• Mushi (Marathi)
• Pooyi sravu (Malayalam)
• Aul Pidiyan (Malayalam)
• Shivra (Kannada)
• Mori (Kannada)
• Sandho (Gujarati)
• Sandha (Gujarati)
• Moosi (Gujarati)
• Yellow Dogshark (English)
• Trowel Nose Shark (English)
• Sharp Nosed Shark (English)
• Indian Dog Shark (English)
• Mori (Malayalam)
• Poozhi Sravu (Tamil)
• Alupidiyan (Tamil)
• Pillai Sorrah (Telugu)
• Palah Sorrah (Oriya)
• Nullian Sorrah (Oriya)
• Pasupukukka Sorrah (Oriya)
• Haldia Magar (Bengali)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Utilized fresh for human consumption; processed into fish meal and used as bait for other sharks and bony fishes.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Common by-catch of the inshore demersal gill net fisheries.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Small bony fishes, anchiovies, bombay ducks, tripauchenids, bregmacerotids, shrimps and cuttlefish.


• Maharashtra, Konkan INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Khadi INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bassein INDIA
• Maharashtra, Rajivada Bander INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 2000-2002)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Vashishti Estuary INDIA (Record: 11/1989)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Arabian Sea (Lat: 20.41) (Long: 69.5) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 92 mts)
• Red Sea
• Maharashtra, Kila Bander INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Joshi, KK; Balachandran, K and Raje, SG (2008) Changes in the shark fishery at Cochin Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 103-105 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gajbhiye, SN; Mehta, P; Mustafa, S and Nair, VR (1995) A case study on the impact of industrial effluents disposal on the fisheries of Amba river estuary, Maharastra Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 25 25-38 Available at -
  • Nair, VR; Mustafa, S; Mehta, P; Govindan, K; Jiyalal Ram, M and Gajbhiye, SN (1998) Biological characteristics of the Vashishti Estuary, Maharashtra (west coast of India) Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR, CSIR 27 310-316 Available at -
  • Hanfee, F (1999) Management of shark fisheries in two Indian coastal states: Tamil Nadu and Kerala Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 378 Rome, FAO Part 1 (11) Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at -
  • Devadoss, P (1984) Nutritive values of sharks, skates and rays from Portonovo coast Indian Journal of Fisheries 31 (1) 156-161 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Tike, MJ; Samant, JS; Mohite, SA (2009) Diversity status of minor fish and shellfish along Malvan coast, Maharshtra Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology, India 24(2) 441-448 Available at -
  • Devaraj, M and Vivekanandan, E (1999) Marine capture fisheries of India: Challenges and Opportunities Current Science Current Science Association 76(3) 314-333 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-03-13

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