Syngnathoides biaculeatus   (Bloch,  1785) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: 26-29 cm.

Color: Variable, green to brown or grey, depending on habitat.

Body shape eel-like. Tube-like mouth. Shields transversally striated, wanting totally in rings of posterior half or third of tail and ventrally in some of the preceding rings. Skin often with numerous longer or shorter branched filaments forming at the chin a pair of branched barbels. Operculum radially striated without keel. Origin of dorsal nearly opposite to vent. There is always different morphology between mature adults. Males with brood pouch, females with ovipositor. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 38 - 48, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 4.

Ovoviviparous. Dioecious. Fertilization is in brood pouch or similar structure. Spawning shows one clear seasonal peak per year. External brooders. The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail.

Has been reared in captivity.

Synonym (s)
Gastrotokens biaculeatus Kaup, 1856
Syngnathoides blochii Bleeker, 1851
Syngnathus tetragonus Linn Gmelin, 1788
Syngnathus biaculeatus Bloch, 1875
Syngnathus tetragonus Thunberg, 1786
Syngnathus biaculeatus Bloch, 1801
Syngnathus biaculeatus Cantor, 1850
Syngnathoides bicauleatus (Bloch, 1785)
Solegnathus blochii Bleeker, 1853
Gastrotokeus biaculeatus Peters, 1855
Gastrotokeus biaculeatus Kaup, 1856
Gastrotokeus biaculeatus Day, 1878
Syngnathoides biaculeatus Weber and de Beaufort, 1922
Stigmatophora unicolor Castelnau, 1875
Syngnathoides biculeatus (Bloch, 1785)
Syngnathus biaculeatus Bloch, 1785
Syngnathus tetragonus Thunberg, 1776

Common Name (s)
• Two Barbel Pipe Fish (English)
• Alligator Pipefish (English)
• Fipumas
• Pulchala
• Two-barbel Pipefish
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Sold live as ornamnetals and are an essential ingredient in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM))
Threats:  Anthropogenic

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, zooplankton, finfish, shrimps, bony fish


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• Kerala INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vedalai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Peter, KJ Fish larvae Director, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004, India Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1922) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 4 410 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murugan, A; Dhanya, S; Rajagopal, S and Balasubramanian, T (2008) Seahorses and pipefishes of the Tamil Nadu coast Current Science 95 (2) 253-260 Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-14

Back to Search