Hypnea valentiae   (Turner) Montagne,  1841 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Rhodophyta
Class: Florideophyceae
Order:Gigartinales
Family:Cystocloniaceae

Description
Size: up to 35 cm in length

Color: Dark brown to black

Plants bushy, robust and erect, main axis cylindrical and thick, arising from a callus disc like structure; branches irregularly arranged around the main axis; 1-2 mm thick, gradually tapering to an acute tip; branches simple or forked; main axis and branches covered with numerous determinate spinous branchlets.
Surface of the main axis and the branches are covered with star shaped structures called “stellate bulbils”; bulbils help form the secondary attachment discs.


Synonym (s)
Fucus valentiae Turner, 1808-1809
Hypnea californica Kylin, 1941
(Heterotypic synonym)
Hypnea hamulosa Womersley, 1994
Hypnea musciformis var. valentiae (Turner) Harvey, 1834
(Homotypic synonym)
Hypnea valentiae (Turner) Montagne, 1841

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Human & animal food; source of carrageenan, fertilizer, medicine (antitumor) and protein)

Ecology
Habitat:  Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• Goa, Terekhol Estuary (Lat: 15.72) (Long: 73.7) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 79.25) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha (Lat: 22.47) (Long: 69.08) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti (Lat: 10.57) (Long: 72.62) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli (Lat: 10.08) (Long: 72.28) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti (Lat: 10.83) (Long: 72.2) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram (Lat: 10.93) (Long: 72.28) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.98) (Long: 72.83) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet (Lat: 10.76) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2006-10/2006)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.78) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban (Lat: 9.29) (Long: 79.21) INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.23) (Long: 79.22) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchendur (Lat: 8.48) (Long: 78.12) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.92) (Long: 79.75) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.7) (Long: 83.3) INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 79.12) INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Southeast Coast, Muthupet Eustary (Lat: 10.31) (Long: 79.53) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.27) INDIA
• Kerala, Trivandrum (Lat: 8.48) (Long: 76.92) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Pondicherry Harbour (Lat: 11.78) (Long: 79.83) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pudumadam Coast (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 07/2007, 08/2007)
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri Coast, Bhatkarwada (Lat: 17.03) (Long: 73.33) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vettaikaran Iruppu, Arichandran Aru INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• INDIA
• KUWAIT
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• MAURITIUS
• PAKISTAN
• SAUDI ARABIA
• SEYCHELLES
• SRI LANKA
• YEMEN
• Tamil Nadu, Muttukadu Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Kalpakkam, Idaiyar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Sadras Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Paramakeni Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Kadapakkam Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore, Uppanar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar-Coleroon Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Thirumullaivasal Uppanar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Poompuhar, Kaveri Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Tharangambadi, Uppanar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Chandrapadi, Nandalar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi, Pattiyaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Athankarai, Vaigaiyaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Off Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur Coast INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Maharashtra, Colaba INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Lagoon (Lat: 8.25) (Long: 73.05) INDIA (Record: 11/1990-06/1991)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Kerala, Tikkoti INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 09/1995-11/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 78.13) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Alantalai-Manapad INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Vembar-Nallatanni Tivu INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Valinokkam-Kilakarai INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad-Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 03/1990)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 12/1958-05/1959) (Depth: 12-17 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.24) (Long: 83.27) INDIA (Record: 03/2008-02/2009)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.75) (Long: 83.35) INDIA (Record: 03/2008-02/2009)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu , Kovalam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muttam INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 08/1986-05/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt Island (Lat: 11.18) (Long: 72.76) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt Island (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 72.79) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka, Honavar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka, Bhatkal INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA
• Gujarat, Shivrajpur INDIA
• Gujarat, Porbandar INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA

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