Hypnea musciformis   (Wulfen) J. V. Lamouroux,  1813 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Rhodophyta
Class: Florideophyceae
Order:Gigartinales
Family:Cystocloniaceae

Description
Size: Thalli up to 8 – 30 cm in length.

Colour: Dull purplish red.

Plants very bushy, often entangled, texture some what fragile, fleshy; the bases disc like, ill defined; erect branches 10-20 cm tall, about 1-2 mm diameter; the leading branches divided several times and abundantly covered with short branches or ramuli. Thalli fleshy, with numerous short branches; longer branches incurled at the tip, functioning like “tendrils” of higher plants; tendrils curved and sickle shaped making contact with other branches of the same plant or with other algae; distinct hold fast absent; plants attaching themselves to the substrate by means of hooked branches, branches developing irregularly from all sides of the body; branchlets (ramuli) spur like, 2-15 mm long arising from all over the body; ramuli numerous in fertile plants, lesser in number in sterile plants.


Synonym (s)
Fucus musciformis Wulfen in Jacquin, 1791
Hypnea seticulosa Jadin, 1935
(Misapplied name)
Hypnea spinella Jadin, 1935
(Misapplied name)
Sphaerococcus musciformis (Wulfen) C. Agardh, 1822
(Heterotypic synonym)
Fucus musciformis Wulfen, 1789
(Homotypic synonym)
Sphaerococcus divaricatus C. Agardh, 1827
(Heterotypic synonym)
Hypnea rissoana J. Agardh, 1842
(Heterotypic synonym)
Hypnea arborescens P. L. Crouan & H. M. Crouan, 1865
(Heterotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Sem Pasi (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(All Hypnea species are used for food and medicines in China, Japan and other countries. This alga provides raw material for carrageenan which has rapidly expanding use in food and allied industries. )

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Porbandar INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Coast (Lat: 18.17) (Long: 66.17) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Island (Lat: 7.24) (Long: 93.74) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 8) (Long: 75) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 10.5) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam Coast INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• MYANMAR
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• MALDIVES
• MAURITIUS
• MOZAMBIQUE
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• OMAN
• PAKISTAN
• SEYCHELLES
• SRI LANKA
• YEMEN
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur Coast INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Gujarat, Gopnath INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 09/1995-11/1995)
• Gujarat, Saurashtra Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 78.13) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Alantalai-Manapad INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Vembar-Nallatanni Tivu INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Valinokkam-Kilakarai INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad-Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 03/1990)
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai-Dhanushkodi INDIA (Record: 12/1990-01/1991)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Adatra Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Hanumandandi Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port INDIA (Record: 01/2005-02/2005, 04/2005)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Katchall INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 12/1958-05/1959) (Depth: 13-16 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka, Honavar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka, Bhatkal INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka INDIA (Record: 2005-2006)
• Gujarat, Shivrajpur INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Pyare, AL Marine algae from Karachi (Part I) 28065 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Nasr, AH (1940) The chorography of the marine algae inhabiting the northern part of the Red Sea coast 13-155 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Dave, MJ; Parekh, RG; Ramavat, BK; Doshi, YA and Chauhan, VD (1987) Protein contents of red seaweeds from Gujarat coast Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Marine Fisheries-623 520, Tamil Nadu, India 10(1) 17-20 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (1996) Subtidal marine algae of the Dwaraka coast (Gujarat) Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences Communication, CSIR, New Delhi 25(4) 297-301 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Clerk, OD; Coppejans, E; Schils,T; Verbruggen, H; Leliaert, F; Vriese, DT and Marie, D (2004) The marine red algae of Rodrigues (Mauritius, Indian Ocean) Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis 38 3021-3057 Available at - http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals
  • Untawale, AG and Jagtap, TG (1989) Observations on marine macrophytes of the Republic of Seychelles Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 32 115-119 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Shameel, M; Afaq Husain, S and ShahidHusain, S (1989) Addition to the knowledge of seaweeds from the coast of Lasbela, Pakistan Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 32 177-180 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kamat, SY; Wahidulla, S; D'Souza, L; Naik, CG; Ambiye, V; Bhakuni, DS; Goel, AK; Garg, HS and Srimal, RC (1992) Bioactivity of marine organisms Botanica Marina 35 161-164 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Kannan L and Thangaradjou (1998) Seaweeds and seagrasses of Porto Novo Annamalai University, Parangipettai 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Divekar, RB; Kerkar, V (2008) Present status of seaweed diversity at Anjuna and Vagatore (Goa) Available at - Library Goa University, Goa
  • Anitha, A; Balamurugan, R; Swarnakumar, NS; Sivakumar, K and Thangaradjou, T (2008) Evaluation of seaweeds for biochemical composition and calorific content Proceedings of the national symposium on marine and coastal ecosystems 27-29, August 2007 Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Marine Fisheries- 623 520, Tamilnadu, India 30 197-202 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mary, SA; Angel, J and Mary, SV (1995) Active compound from marine red alga Hypnea musciformis as bacteriostatic and immunomodulator Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 17(1-2) 69-77 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Chennubhotla, VSK; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR and Pillai, SK (1995) Distribution of seaweeds off Kattapadu-Tiruchendur Coast, Tamil Nadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 17(1-2) 183-193 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N and Kalimuthu, S (1997) Seaweed potential and its exploitation in India Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 33-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roslin, AS; Rosakutty, PJ and Lazarus, S (1997) A study on the flora and fauna of Arockiapuram Coast of Tamil Nadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 55-61 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ramavat, BK and Rao, AV (1997) The total sterols and fatty acids composition of some marine algae of Saurashtra coast - west coast of India Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 75-79 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Selvaraj, R and Selvaraj, R (1997) Distribution and diversity of seaweeds in Tiruchendur and Idinthakarai Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 115-123 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Chennubhotla, VSK; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR; Pillai, SK; Muniyandi, K; Rao, KR; Rao, PVS; Thomas, PC; Zaidi, SH and Subbaramaiah, K (1998) Seaweed resources and distribution in deep waters from Dhanushkodi to Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu, India 20(1&2) 141-151 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ranjitham, NS; Thirumaran, G; Anantharaman, P; Nightingale, VD and Balasubramanian, R (2008) Associated Fauna of Seaweeds and Seagrasses in Vellar Estuary American-Eurasian Journal of Botany IDOSI Publications 1 (1) 9-16 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/aejb/1%281%2908/3.pdf
  • Gopalakrishnan, P (1970) Some observations on the shore ecology of the Okha Coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin, India 120(1&2) 15-34 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR. (1995) Economically important Seaweeds Special publication number 62 CMFRI 1-36 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3476/1/Special_Publication_No_62.pdf
  • Tanaji,G; Jagtap, Deepali,S; Komarpant, and Rodrigues, RS (2003) Status of a seagrass ecosystem:an ecologically sensitive wetland habitat from India Wetlands 23(1) 161–170 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/awjp1469442q5g75/fulltext.pdf
  • Thakur, MC; Reddy, CRK and Jha, B (2008) Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India Journal of Earth System Science Springer 117(3) 211–218 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/t71wx618175657h3/fulltext.pdf
  • Gopinathan, CP and Panigrahy, R (1983) Seaweed resources Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 47-51 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/917/1/Bulletin_No_34-8.pdf
  • Chennubhotla, VSK; Kaliaperumal, N; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR; Subbaramiah, K; Rao, KR and Rao, PVS (1990) Seaweed resources of the Tuticorin-Tiruchendur coast, Tamil Nadu, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 32 (1-2) 146-149 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1120/1/Chennu_146-149.pdf
  • Rao, MU (1970) The economic Seaweeds of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 20 1-82 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/608/1/Bulletin_20.pdf
  • Varma, RP (1960) Flora of the pearl beds off Tuticorin Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 2 (2) 221-225 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1405/1/Prasanna_221-225.pdf
  • Kaliaperumal, N and Pandian, G (1984) Marine algal flora from some localities of south Tamil nadu coast Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 26(1&2) 159-164 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kaladharan, P and Kalimuthu, S (1989) Seaweed and seagrass resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 162-176 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, PSBR (1987) Distribution of the important Indian marine algae Seaweed research and utilization in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 41 100-111 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8209/1/Bulletin_No_41.pdf
  • Untawale, AG; Reddy, CRK and Deshmukhe, GV (1989) Ecology of intertidal benthic algae of northern Karnataka coast Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Scientific Publishers 18 73-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumar, V (1993) Biochemical constituents of marine algae from Tuticorin coast Indian journal of marine sciences CSIR 22 138-140 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaladharan, P; Zacharia, PU and Vijayakumaran, K (2011) Coastal and marine floral biodiversity along the Karnataka coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 53 (1) 121 - 129 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8710/1/121--129--P._Kaladharan.pdf
  • Kaladharan, P; Zacharia, PU and Vijayakumaran, K (2011) Coastal and Marine floral biodiversity along the Karnataka coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India 53(1) 121-129 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Jha B, Reddy C.R.K, Thakur M C and Rao M (2009) Seaweeds of India The Diversity and Distribution of seaweeds of Gujarat Coast Springer 211pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-12-12

Back to Search