Halymenia venusta   Borgesen,  1932 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Rhodophyta
Class: Florideophyceae
Order:Halymeniales
Family:Halymeniaceae

Description
Color: Light to deep red or darker with age.

Plants attached to substratum by a small disc. Stipe very short, 0.5 cm long, cuneate, expanding abruptly into a much broadened and flat thallus. Thallus variable in size and shape, flat, sometimes hardly divided, forming large flat fronds up to 30 cm or more, or divided into several lobes, tough, 500 µ thick. Margin of frond densely proliferous throughout. Proliferations on the whole surface of the frond also, varying in size, generally very small up to few cm long, repeatedly divided. Cortical layer of thallus at periphery formed by short forked cell rows. Peripheral cells oblong, densely packed, 5-7 µ broad, 10 µ long. Cortical layer 50-60 µ thick; innermost cells large, giving out stellate and irregularly twisted filaments, crossing each other in the mucilaginous interior.

Cystocarps scattered throughout the thallus in the interior of the tissue. Carpospores dense roundish bodies, surrounded by curved filaments, surmounted by an ostiole. Ostiole 50-80 µ in diameter. Tetrasporangia in cortical layer, scattered throughout the thallus, small, 12 µ broad, 20 µ long, cruciately divided.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Okha Port (Lat: 22.45) (Long: 69.07) INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha (Lat: 22.47) (Long: 69.08) INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Coast (Lat: 18.17) (Long: 66.17) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti (Lat: 10.57) (Long: 72.62) INDIA
• Gujarat, Saurashtra (Lat: 21.97) (Long: 70.5) INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha (Lat: 22.48) (Long: 69.1) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 11.12) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Coast (Lat: 22.23) (Long: 68.97) INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port (Lat: 22.47) (Long: 69.08) INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Gujarat, Muldwarka (Lat: 20.75) (Long: 70.67) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• MALDIVES
• YEMEN
• Tamil Nadu, Off Valinokkam-Kilakarai Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Off Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur Coast INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 10/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Alantalai-Manapad INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Vembar-Nallatanni Tivu INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Valinokkam-Kilakarai INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad-Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 03/1990)
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai-Dhanushkodi INDIA (Record: 12/1990-01/1991)
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Hanumandandi Reef INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port INDIA (Record: 05/2004, 12/2004, 02/2005-04/2005)
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Shivrajpur INDIA
• Gujarat, Samiani Island INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA
• Gujarat, Porbandar INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Murthy, MS; Bhattacharya, M and Radia, P (1978) Ecological studies on the intertidal algae at Okha (India) Botanica marina Cram,De Gruyter and Co., Hamburg, Germany 21 381-386 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dave, MJ; Parekh, RG; Ramavat, BK; Doshi, YA and Chauhan, VD (1987) Protein contents of red seaweeds from Gujarat coast Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Marine Fisheries-623 520, Tamil Nadu, India 10(1) 17-20 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
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  • Jagtap, TG (1987) Distribution of algae, seagrasses and coral communities from Lakshadweep islands, eastern Arabian Sea Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi in association with The Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 16(4) 256-260 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Parekh, RG; Bhatt, SB; Chauhan, VD and Rao, PS (1984) Bromine Content of Some Indian Marine Algae Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 13 88-89 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Bolton, JJ; Oyieke, HA and Gwada, P (2007) The seaweeds of Kenya: Checklist, history of seaweed study, coastal environment, and analysis of seaweed diversity and biogeography South African Journal of Botany 73 76-88 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • DigiMus2.0 – The Software for Digital Museum of Seaweed Specimen Records Available at - http://www.niobioinformatics.org/digimus.php
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Silva, PC; Basson, PW and Moe, RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean University of California Press 79 1259 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kalimuthu, S; Muniyandi, K; Ramalingam, JR; Rao, PVS; Rao, KR; Thomas, PC; Zaidi, SH and Subbaramaiah, K (1996) Distribution of marine algae and seagrass off Valinokkam-Kilakkarai, Tamil Nadu Coast Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 18(1-2) 73-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Chennubhotla, VSK; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR and Pillai, SK (1995) Distribution of seaweeds off Kattapadu-Tiruchendur Coast, Tamil Nadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 17(1-2) 183-193 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roslin, AS; Rosakutty, PJ and Lazarus, S (1997) A study on the flora and fauna of Arockiapuram Coast of Tamil Nadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 55-61 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Chennubhotla, VSK; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR; Pillai, SK; Muniyandi, K; Rao, KR; Rao, PVS; Thomas, PC; Zaidi, SH and Subbaramaiah, K (1998) Seaweed resources and distribution in deep waters from Dhanushkodi to Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu, India 20(1&2) 141-151 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gopalakrishnan, P (1970) Some observations on the shore ecology of the Okha Coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin, India 120(1&2) 15-34 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Thakur, MC; Reddy, CRK and Jha, B (2008) Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India Journal of Earth System Science Springer 117(3) 211–218 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/t71wx618175657h3/fulltext.pdf
  • Rao, MU (1970) The economic Seaweeds of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 20 1-82 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/608/1/Bulletin_20.pdf
  • Srivastava, MN and Mehrotra, BN (1990) Algal status of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 145-149 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jha B, Reddy C.R.K, Thakur M C and Rao M (2009) Seaweeds of India The Diversity and Distribution of seaweeds of Gujarat Coast Springer 211pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-12-11

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