Hydroclathrus clathratus   (C. Agardh) M. A. Howe,  1920 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Phaeophyceae

Color: Brown to dark brown.

Thallus form and type: Vesicular and net like masses

Substratum: Intertidal rocks, coralline stones

Occurrence: Lower mid littoral zone and infra littoral fringe, wave exposed rocks

Season: November-April

Abundance: Domonent

Thalli up to 12 cm long and 4-8 cm broad, unperforated when young, becoming perforated when mature, membranaceous. Perforations formed by anastomosing branches, the former variable in size. Smaller perforations or meshes bound by means of interlocking rhizoids. Apertures in thallus, very variable in size and shape, 1-3 cm in diameter, in the beginning very small and laterally compressed, but with the expansion of the thallus tissue, apertures widen and in fully grown plants, become very large even up to or more than 3 cm in diameter, irregular in outline. Interspaces of thallus about apertures, 1-3 mm broad, margins involute. New apertures developing in the interspaces, resulting ultimately in the complicated network of the plant body. Interspace tissue sometimes very delicate, lace-like sometimes coarse. Branches cylindrical to slightly flattened in form, composed of a single-layered epidermis consisting of short, almost rectangular cells; cells below small, rounded becoming angular and large in lowest layer. Cryptostomata scattered with numerous hairs emerging from a shallow depression. Central parenchyma cells 50-150 µ in diameter. Cortical layer cells, polygonal in surface view, 5.5- 9 µ across.

Reproductive structures in young plants, in a continuous layer, in older Thalli stray or even absent. Gametangia 9-17 µ in diameter, 13-23 µ high. Plurilocular sporangia arising from the epidermal cells, grouped together in form of sori, club-shaped, possessing a number of loculi.

Synonym (s)
Asperococcus cancellatus (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Sonder, 1846
(Heterotypic synonym)
Asperococcus clathratus (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, 1848
(Homotypic synonym)
Encoelium clathratum C. Agardh, 1823
(Homotypic synonym)
Encoelium clathratum Silva et al., 1996
Hydroclathrus cancellatus Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1825
(Heterotypic synonym)
Hydroclathrus cancellatus Silva et al., 1996
Encoelium clathratum C. Agardh, 1821
Hydroclathrus cancellatus Bory, 1826
Stilophora clathrata C. Agardh, 1827
Asperococcus cancellatus Endlicher, 1843
Halodictyon cancellatum Kutzing, 1843
Asperococcus clathratus J. Agardh, 1848
Talarodictyon tilesii Endlicher, 1843
(Heterotypic synonym)
Stilophora clathrata (C. Agardh) C. Agardh, 1827
(Homotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Idiappam Pasi (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Eaten as salad.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky, Coastal


• Gujarat, Porbandar INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Coast (Lat: 18.17) (Long: 66.17) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.23) (Long: 79.22) INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Saurashtra (Lat: 21.97) (Long: 70.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, East Coast of Chennai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 92.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 79.12) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 11.12) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 10.5) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8) (Long: 93.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram Island (Lat: 9.33) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.78) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island (Lat: 8.75) (Long: 78.2) INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka Coast (Lat: 22.23) (Long: 68.97) INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Athankarai, Vaigaiyaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Gujarat, Dwarka Reef INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Neill Island INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Tamil Nadu, Pullivasal Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Gujarat, Shivrajpur INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Mehta, BR and Parekh, RG (1978) Mannitol content in brown algae of the coast of Saurashtra Botanica Marina Walta de Gruyter, Berlin 21 251-252 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Shunula, JP (1985) A preliminary checklist of Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta of economic importance on five shores of Zanzibar Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Marine Fishereies-623 520, Tamil Nadu, India 7(2) Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Basson, PW; Mohamed, SA and Arora, DK (1989) A survey of the benthic marine algae of Bahrain Botanica Marina 32 27-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG (1987) Distribution of algae, seagrasses and coral communities from Lakshadweep islands, eastern Arabian Sea Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi in association with The Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 16(4) 256-260 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Kamat, SY; Wahidulla, S; D'Souza, L; Naik, CG; Ambiye, V; Bhakuni, DS; Goel, AK; Garg, HS and Srimal, RC (1992) Bioactivity of marine organisms Botanica Marina 35 161-164 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Mishra, JN (1966) Phaeophyceae in India ICAR 203 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Silva, PC; Basson, PW and Moe, RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean University of California Press 79 1259 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Krishnamurthy, V (2006) Key to the taxonomic identification of green and brown marine algae of India Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 1 1-146 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kalimuthu, S; Kaliaperumal, N and Ramalingam, JR (1995) Distribution of algae and seagrasses in the estuaries and backwaters of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 17(1-2) 79-86 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gopalakrishnan, P (1970) Some observations on the shore ecology of the Okha Coast Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Cochin, India 120(1&2) 15-34 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR. (1995) Economically important Seaweeds Special publication number 62 CMFRI 1-36 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3476/1/Special_Publication_No_62.pdf
  • Gopinathan, CP and Panigrahy, R (1983) Seaweed resources Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 47-51 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/917/1/Bulletin_No_34-8.pdf
  • Sundaram, KS; Sarvesan, R; Mohamed, KH and Shanbhogue, SL (1969) Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 9 1-52 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/570/1/Bulletin_9.pdf
  • Kaliaperumal, N and Pandian, G (1984) Marine algal flora from some localities of south Tamil nadu coast Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 26(1&2) 159-164 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Kaladharan, P and Kalimuthu, S (1989) Seaweed and seagrass resources Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 162-176 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • James, PSBR (1987) Distribution of the important Indian marine algae Seaweed research and utilization in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 41 100-111 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8209/1/Bulletin_No_41.pdf
  • Srivastava, MN and Mehrotra, BN (1990) Algal status of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 145-149 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jha B, Reddy C.R.K, Thakur M C and Rao M (2009) Seaweeds of India The Diversity and Distribution of seaweeds of Gujarat Coast Springer 211pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-12-03

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