Ulva lactuca   Linnaeus,  1753 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Chlorophyta
Class: Ulvophyceae
Order:Ulvales
Family:Ulvaceae

Description
Color: Green color from Chlorophyll a and b

It is a photosynthetic species. Plant, up to 20 cm, initially attached, later on at times becoming detached and drifting broadly expanded and torn sheet, broad. Fronds delicate, growing as large sheets. Margin of the thallus ruffled, wavy and folded. Thallus distromatic with two layers of cells; foliaceous, membranaceous, expanded plane, obovate in young conditions, broadly ovate or as rounded expansions in older plants, rarely incised but occasionally laciniate with small perforations of various sizes in the thallus. Margin of thallus ruffled, wavy and folded. Plant attached to the substratum by a holdfast composed of rhizoidal outgrowths from the lower cells. Holdfast portion of the thallus perennial and can proliferate new blades. Substance very thin, delicate, semi transparent. Surface glossy.

Cells in the middle and apical regions irregularly polygonal with 4-5 corners, showing unequal division arranged in indistinct groups. Pyrenoids 1 per cell sometimes 2 or 3. Chloroplast cup shaped, filling outer third of a cell.

It has isomorphic free living gametophytic and sporophytic generations. Gametophytes produce small biflagellated male gametes and larger female gametes. Female gametes able to germinate without fertilization. Asexual reproduction may be by fission (splitting), fragmentation or by zoospores (motile spores). Sexual reproduction may be isogamous (gametes both motile and same size); anisogamous (both motile and different sizes-female bigger) or oogamous (female non-motile and egg-like; male motile)

Occurs epilithic on littoral rocks.


Synonym (s)
Ulva latissima Harvey, 1863
(Misapplied name)
Ulva stipitata J. E. Areschoug, 1850
(Heterotypic synonym)
Ulva fenestrata Postels & Ruprecht, 1840
(Heterotypic synonym)
Ulva lactucaefolia S. F. Gray, 1821
(Heterotypic synonym)
Phycoseris australis Kutzing, 1843
Phycoseris australis var. umbilicalis Kutzing, 1845
Ulva crassa Kjellman, 1877
(Heterotypic synonym)
Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813
(Heterotypic synonym)
Phyllona lactuca (Linnaeus) F.H.Wiggers, 1780
(Homotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Sea Lettuce (English)
• Pattu Pasi (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
(Exhibits antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant activities; bioferlizer.
Crop of fishpond effluents. In India, some efforts are being made to develop new applications for liquid extracts of this algae as culture medium supplements for phytoplankton mass culture.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Okha (Lat: 22.47) (Long: 69.08) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.98) (Long: 72.83) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.23) (Long: 79.22) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA
• Gujarat, Vadodara INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.78) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Waltair Coast (Lat: 17.72) (Long: 83.33) INDIA
• Gujarat, Saurashtra (Lat: 21.97) (Long: 70.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Gujarat, Porbandar (Lat: 21.63) (Long: 69.6) INDIA
• Daman and Diu, Diu (Lat: 20.73) (Long: 70.98) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Gujarat, Jalleshwar INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 10) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 79.25) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 79.12) INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra, Tarapur (Lat: 17.7) (Long: 75.47) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar (Lat: 14.83) (Long: 74.13) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam (Lat: 17.7) (Long: 83.3) INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchendur (Lat: 8.48) (Long: 78.12) INDIA
• Daman and Diu, Devka INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Kerala, Kovalam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Gujarat, Jalleshwar shore (Lat: 20.9) (Long: 70.37) INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port (Lat: 22.45) (Long: 69.07) INDIA
• Gujarat, Mithapur (Lat: 22.63) (Long: 72.13) INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval (Lat: 20.9) (Long: 70.37) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.12) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Pondicherry Harbour (Lat: 11.78) (Long: 79.83) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Orissa, Paradwip Port INDIA (Record: 04/1999-06/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Manali Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island, Galaxea reef INDIA (Record: 1940-1950)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.17) (Long: 77.74) INDIA (Record: 12/2003, 31/12/2004)
• West Bengal INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA (Record: 12/2004)
• Tamil Nadu, Pudumadam INDIA
• Kerala, Tangasseri INDIA (Record: 06/2003-05/2004)
• Kerala, Thirumullavaram INDIA (Record: 06/2003-05/2004)
• Kerala, Neendakara INDIA (Record: 06/2003-05/2004)
• Kerala, Ashtamudi Estuary INDIA (Record: 06/2003-05/2004)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• BAHRAIN
• BANGLADESH
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• MALDIVES
• MAURITIUS
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• OMAN
• PAKISTAN
• SEYCHELLES
• SRI LANKA
• TANZANIA
• YEMEN
• Tamil Nadu, Sadras Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore, Uppanar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 09/1995-11/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Thirumullaivasal Uppanar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Valinokkam-Kilakarai INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad-Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 03/1990)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.26) (Long: 79.11) INDIA
• West Bengal, Sunderban Mangroves (Lat: 21.51) (Long: 88.08) INDIA (Record: 04/2006-11/2006)
• West Bengal, Sunderban Mangroves (Lat: 22.66) (Long: 89.1) INDIA (Record: 04/2006-11/2006)
• Gujarat, Dwarka Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Adatra Reef INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA
• Gujarat, Porbandar INDIA
• Daman and Diu, Diu INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Kerala, Alleppey INDIA
• Kerala, Kollam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchendur INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port INDIA (Record: 05/2004, 07/2004, 12/2004, 02/2005, 04/2005)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Neill Island INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Havelock INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Hut Bay INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Car Nicobar INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Camorta INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 12/1958-05/1959) (Depth: 13-16 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 08/1986-05/1987)
• Kerala, Kollam Coast (Lat: 8.9) (Long: 76.63) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt Island (Lat: 11.18) (Long: 72.76) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt Island (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 72.79) INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka, Honavar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.73) INDIA (Record: 10/2003-12/2003)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam (Lat: 8.4) (Long: 76.93) INDIA (Record: 10/2003-12/2003)
• Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam INDIA
• Gujarat, Gopnath (Lat: 21.36) (Long: 72.23) INDIA

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