Spongia officinalis   Linnaeus,  1759 (Sponge)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Porifera
Class: Demospongiae
Order:Dictyoceratida
Family:Spongiidae

Image copyrights: Mehmet Aydin

Description
Maximum size: Can exceed 35 cm in diameter.

Color: Varying of the a little yellowish white to the black according to illumination, whitish with color of rust inside.

Sponge variable; generally massive; round, but being able equipped with regular lobes (especially at the large specimens); or with large conical lobes osculus. Surface equipped with many small conules regular. Osculus: 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter; often raised. Primary fibers: 0.005 to 0.01 cm diameter; very few formed at their end in the conules by the anastomoses of several fibers; and containing some foreign bodies. The secondary fibers: 0.002 with 0.0035 cm of diameter; in tightened network sometimes finest close to surface.


Synonym (s)
Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759
(Senior synonym)
Euspongia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1759)
(Senior synonym)
Spongia mollissima Schmidt, 1862
(Junior synonym)
Spongia quarnerensis Schmidt, 1862
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; the fine sponge is used especially for the toilet.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic

Biogeography


• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 79.25) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpitti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Captain, A (2002) Checklist of Indian snakes
  • Mohan, JM (1978) Ecological studies on the fauna associated with economic seaweeds of south India-1. species composition, feeding habits and interrelationships Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Tamil Nadu 3 17 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Alfred, JRB; Das, AK and Sanyal, AK (Eds.) (1998) Faunal diversity in India ZSI, Calcutta 1-497 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Thomas, PA (1989) Sponge fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 150-161 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-26

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