Epinephelus maculatus   (Bloch,  1790) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: T. Suzuki

Size: 40 cm.

Color: In very young specimens dark brown, with large white blotches on head and body, one in front of dorsal and one through posterior part of spinous dorsal and continued on back, forming more or less well defined crossbars. In older specimens up to 100 mm. those white blotches are still visible, and head and body all traces of the white blotches have disappeared and the fish is brownish, covered with black distal spots on head, body and tail and all fins.

Height 2.6-3.1, 3.4-3.9 in length with caudal. Head 2.3-2.4, 2.8-3.1 in length with caudal. Head 2.3-2.4, 2.8-3.1 in length with caudal. Eye 3.8 (in young specimen)- 5.1, equal to or slightly more than snout. Inter orbital space three fifths of diameter of eye. Maxillary scaly, reaching beyond hind border of eye, its width at distal extremity 1.6 in eye. Praeopercular border obtusely angulate, a little produced at angle, which is armed with enlarged serrae. Opercular flap pointed, middle opercular spine nearer lower than upper, lower further back than upper. Gillrakers about 12 and some rudiments on lower part of anterior arch. Third and fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.4-2.7 in length of head, longer than longest soft rays. Last dorsal spine two thirds or three fourths of longest spine. Second and third anal spines subequal, scarcely shorter than last dorsal spine. Longest soft anal rays equal to longest dorsal spines. Pectorals equal to postorbital part of head, ventrals as long as distance between hindborder of eye and base of middle opercular spine. Caudal rounded. Scales mostly ciliated, those of head cycloid.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Holocentrus albo-fuscus Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Holocentrus maculatus Bloch, 1790
(Senior synonym)
Plectropoma kulas Thiolliere, 1856
(Junior synonym)
Serranus medurensis Gunther, 1873
(Junior synonym)
Serranus sebae Bleeker, 1854
(Junior synonym)
Serranus quoyanus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus gaimardi Quoy and Gaimard, 1833
Serranus quoyanus Bleeker, 1849
Serranus maculatus Bleeker, 1856
Serranus sebae Gunther, 1859
Epinephelus sebae Bleeker, 1863
Serranus longispinis Kner, 1864
Epinephelus albofuscus Bleeker, 1865
Serranus longispinis Playfair and Gunther, 1866
Epinephelus maculatus Bleeker, 1876
Serranus maculatus Day, 1888
Epinephelus maculatus Boulenger, 1895
Cephalopholis maculatus Seale and Bean, 1908
Epinephelus maculatus Barnard, 1927
Serranus maculatus Fowler, 1928

Common Name (s)
• Blochs Rockcod (English)
• Brown Spotted Rock Cod (English)
• Highfin Grouper (English)
• Marbled Rock Cod (English)
• Spotted Rockcod (English)
• Trout Cod (English)
• Kolaji (Kannada)
• Kalava (Malayalam)
• Kolamin (Malayalam)
• Pulli Kalawa (Malayalam)
• Gobra (Marathi)
• Hekaru (Marathi)
• Bontoo (Telugu)
• Trout Reef-cod (English)
• Sea Bass (English)
• Vekhru
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, aquarium.
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Sand-dwelling fishes and crustaceans, sometimes on octopuses
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai (Lat: 13.09) (Long: 80.29) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikader, BK (1982) The fauna of India (spiders: Araneae) ZSI, Calcutta 2(part 1-2) 1-536 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Index to Organism Names (ION) Available at - http://www.organismnames.com/
  • Randall, JE and GR, Allen (1987) Four new serranid fishes of the genus Epinephelus (Perciformes: Epinephelinae) from western Australia Dana-report No.63 Records of the Western Australian Museum 13(3) Available at - Zoological Records
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-24

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