Gymnura poecilura   (Shaw,  1804) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Elasmobranchii
Order:Rajiformes
Family:Gymnuridae

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Description
Size: 91.5 cm -250 cm; 24-250 cm disc width

Color: The dorsal surface is brown while the underside is whitish

The body is diamond-shaped with its disc very broad and depressed and about twice as wide as long. The snout is broadly obtuse with a small projection in front. There are two large spiracles. Both these spiracles which are situated close behind the eyes, open upwards. The tail is whip-like and is more than half the disc length. A serrated spine is present close to the base of the tail. The pectoral fins are very wide and the pelvic fins are fleshy. There are no dorsal, anal or caudal fins. Body is smooth although some tubercles may be present dorsally along the middle of the back.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialized structures. Distinct pairing with embrace.


Synonym (s)
Astrape dipterygia (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misapplied name)
Ceratoptera ehrenbergi (non Muller & Henle, 1841)
(Misapplied name)
Dasyatis micrura (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misapplied name)
Gymnura micrura (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misapplied name)
Gymnura poecilura (Shaw, 1804)
(Senior synonym)
Pteroplatea annulata Swainson, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Pteroplatea micrura (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misapplied name)
Pteroplatea poecilura (Shaw, 1804)
(Senior synonym)
Raja poecilura Shaw, 1804
(Senior synonym)
Trygon kunsa (Cuvier, 1829)
(Junior synonym)
Trygon poecilurus (Shaw, 1804)
(Senior synonym)
Urogymnus poecilura (Shaw, 1804)
(Senior synonym)
Pastinaca kunsa Cuvier, 1829
(misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Longtailed Butterflyray (English)
• Longtail Butterfly Ray (English)
• Long Tailed Butterfly Ray (English)
• Perum Thirandi (Malayalam)
• Shveta (Marathi)
• Randgi (Marathi)
• Advani Tiriki (Sindhi)
• Tappu Cooti (Telugu)
• Tenkee Kunsul (Telugu)
• Spotted Butterfly Ray (English)
• Butterfly Ray (English)
• Slevta (Marathi)
• Advani - Tiriki (Tamil)
• Sankusa (Oriya)
• Patari
• Boor
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Threatened globally due to the high level of exploitation through much of its range, its restricted habitat and declines in closely related sympatric species, such as the zonetail butterfly ray Aetoplatea zonura. The longtail butterfly ray is highly susceptible to a variety of gear types and its restricted life history limits its ability to recover from population depletion.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Demersal, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Flatfishes, crabs and marine worms
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Gulf of Oman
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA (Record: 10/1999-11/2000)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 1998)
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA (Record: 2002-2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Athankarai INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Red Sea
• INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Sumatra INDONESIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
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  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6060/
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Page last updated on:2012-01-02

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