Gnathanodon speciosus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 120 cm SL.

Weight: 15 kg.

Color: Color of juveniles and young adults bright yellow to silvery; broad and narrow black bars alternating; fins yellow. Adults with few black blotches or spots on sides; bars, if present, very faint.

Body is compressed with a steep head profile. Mouth is large and protractile and the lips are papillose. Its upper jaw reaches to below front edge of eye or front margin of pupil. Lips are papillose. Breast completely scaled. Pectorals falcate and longer than head; anal fin with 2 detached spines, followed by a single spine and 16 soft rays. 2 dorsal fins are present out of which the first dorsal fin has 1 procumbent spine and 7 normal spines. The second dorsal fin has 1 spine and 7 normal spines. The second dorsal fin has 1 spine and 19 soft rays. The fin bases of anal and dorsal fin are almost equal. Caudal fin is deeply forked. Its lobes are equal. Scales are small and become straight under 8th soft dorsal ray. 22 feeble scutes are present in the body. Forms schools.

Synonym (s)
Caranx cives De Vis, 1884
(Junior synonym)
Caranx edentulus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Caranx panamensis Gill, 1863
(Junior synonym)
Caranx speciosus (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Scomber speciosus Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Gnathodon speciosus (Forsskal, 1775)
Gnathonodon speciosus (Forsskal, 1775)

Common Name (s)
• Golden Toothless Trevally (English)
• Golden Trevally (English)
• Horse Mackerel (English)
• Gondlu (Kannada)
• Para (Malayalam)
• Kilisai (Tamil)
• Komaraparai (Tamil)
• Para (Tamil)
• Parai (Tamil)
• Pathi Parah (Tamil)
• Pilli Parah (Tamil)
• Pulli Parai (Tamil)
• Semaparai (Tamil)
• Thenga Parai (Tamil)
• Vennai Parai (Tamil)
• Manjal Parai (Telugu)
• Para (Telugu)
• Poloosoo Parah (Telugu)
• Pulli Parai (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium. Marketed fresh and salted or dried. Juveniles are used in the aquarium trade.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, benthic crustaceans, mollusks


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 12.53) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore Coast INDIA (Record: 08/2008, 12/2008)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • (1994) The effect of artificial reef installation on the biosocioeconomics of small scale fisheries in Ranong province, Thailand Bay of Bengal Programme Available at - NCL, Pune
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  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
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  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sreenivasan, PV (1974) On two new records of carangid fishes from Indian seas Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 21 (1) 20-28 Available at -
  • Lakshmi, A and Sundaramanickam, A (2011) Biodiversity of reef ichthyofauna in Cuddalore coast, southeast coast of India International Journal of Environmental Sciences Integrated Publishing Association 1(7) 1616-1621 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-30

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