Kowala coval [Status Unaccepted]   (Cuvier,  1829) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 9 cm.

Oblong, very compressed, lower profile strongly convex, upper profile very little curved, front of head concave. Back serrated between head and first dorsal. Height 2 2/3 – 3, 3 1/3 – 4 with caudal, head 4-4¼, 5-5½ with caudal, eye 3-3¼ with large adipose eyelids, longer than snout, about equal to postorbital part of head. Several diverging postfrontal striae. Maxillary reaches to front part of pupil, 2 1/3 in head. Operculum about two times as high as broad, suboperculum pointed behind, with a convex lower border. Praeoperculum with rounded posterior angle. Origin of dorsal nearer to snout than to caudal, its height about as its base and about equal to head without snout, and a little shorter than base of anal. Pectorals a little longer than head without snout. Origin of ventrals before origin of dorsal. Teeth on vomer, palatines, pterygoids and tongue. Gillrakers about 32, somewhat longer than the branchial filaments, shorter than half eye. Nineteen praeventral, 10 more prominent postventral abdominal sharpedged scutes. About 16 dorsal edged scutes. Scales firm, smooth, border rounded and irregularly crenulated. Yellowish, head, abdomen and a median lateral band silvery. Two rows of black dots along the back. Black dots on point of snout, top of head and in a row along each side of the base of the anal. Caudal dotted with black, the dots more crowded at the margin.

Synonym (s)
Clupea coval Cuvier, 1829
Kowala thoracata Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1847
Clupea lile Gunther, 1913
Clupeoides lile Weber and Beaufort, 1913
Clupea (Harengula) thoracata Weber and Beaufort, 1913
Kowala coval Fowler, 1941

Common Name (s)
• White Sardine (English)
• Swadi Balanjil (Kannada)
• Chooda (Malayalam)
• Valoori (Malayalam)
• Bhitgi (Marathi)
• Motawa
• Bhangi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Phytoplankton like Coscinodiscus spp., Fragillaria, Biddulphia, Thallissiothrix spp., Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia, Pleurosigma, Chaetoceras and zooplankton like Ceratium, Peridenium, young stages of Acetes and prawns, Lucifer, zoeae and other crustacean larvae, bivalve larvae and fish eggs


• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• Tamil Nadu, Adirampattinam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vedalai INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Kerala, Calicut INDIA
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 10-75 mts)
• Kerala, Off Calicut INDIA (Record: 1948-1953) (Depth: 3.65-14.63 mts)
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Kerala INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1965) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E.J. Brill, Leiden, Holland 2 404 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Sujansingani, KH (1954) Fish and fisheries of the Chilka Lake with statistics of fish catches for the years 1948-1950 Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1 (1-2) 256-344 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1634/2/Article_15.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Silas, EG (1969) Part-1 Exploratory otter trawling surveys by R.V. Varuna and other vessels operating in association with her from the continental shelf edge and the upper continental slope off the south-west coast of India Exploratory fishing by R.V. Varuna Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 12 7-51 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/657/2/Bulletin_No_12_1.pdf
  • Venkataraman, G (1960) Studies on the food and feeding relationships of the inshore fishes off Calicut on the Malabar coast Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 7 (2) 275-306 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1898/1/Article_03.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Clupeidae Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Coastal Fishery Resources in Countries Bordering Indian Ocean Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-16

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