Ceratium fusus [Status Unaccepted]   (Ehrenberg, 1834) Dujardin,  1841 (Dinoflagellate)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Chromista
Phylum:Myzozoa
Class: Peridinea
Order:Gonyaulacida
Family:Ceratiaceae

Image copyrights: Mats Kuylenstierna & Bengt Karlson

Description
Large fusiform cell with a fully developed apical horn, a fully developed left hypotheca horn, and a rudimentary right hypothecal horn. Cells contain numerous yellow-brown chloroplasts. Cells are needle-shaped, elongated with curved outline, widest at the cingulum area. The epitheca is gently tapering into a long anterior horn. The hypotheca is extending into a very long left and a rudimentary tooth-like right antapical horn. The thecal plates are ornamented. Plates in the central area on the ventral side are very delicate. The nucleus is situated in the epicone
Plate formula: 4` 5`` 4c 5``` 2```` plus ventral plates and reduced sulcal plates. It is both a heterotrophic (eat other organisms) and autotrophic (photosynthetic) species.

Reproduction is general for group: both sexual and asexual.


Synonym (s)
Peridinium fusus Ehrenberg, 1834
Amphiceratium fusus (Ehrenberg) Vanhoeffen, 1896
Ceratium seta (Ehrenberg, 1859) Jorgensen, 1911

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(Produce dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
Predator:  Marine microorganisms and animal larvae

Biogeography


• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Karnataka, Gurupur Estuary INDIA (Record: 01/1993-12/1993)
• Karnataka, Netravati Estuary INDIA (Record: 02/1993-05/1994)
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA (Record: 1970-1972)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangroves (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Kerala, Azheekode INDIA
• Kerala, Kodikkal INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kaduviyar estuary INDIA (Record: 10/2005-09/2006)
• Kerala, Alleppey, Ambalapuzha Coast INDIA (Record: 1971-1972)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.39) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.82) (Long: 79.88) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• East Coast (Lat: 10) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)
• East Coast (Lat: 21) (Long: 94) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, GC (1990) Present status of the sea cow, Dugong dugon Journal of Andaman Science Association 6 185-189
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Saad, MAH (1984) Proceedings of the Symposium on Coral Reef environment of the Red Sea King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 1-681 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Madhav, GV and Kondalarao, B (2004) Distribution of phytoplankton in the coastal waters of east coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 33(3) 262-268 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1678/1/IJMS%2033%283%29%20262-268.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Plankton*Net Data Provider at the Alfred Wegener Insitute for Polar and Marine Research Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10013/de.awi.planktonnet
  • Steidinger, KA and Tangen, K (1997) Dinoflagellates Identifying marine phytoplankton Academic Press, San Diego, USA 387-584 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gowda, G; Gupta, TRC; Rajesh, KM and Mendon, MR (2002) Primary productivity in relation to chlorophyll a and phytoplankton in Gurupur estuary Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44 (1 & 2) 14-21 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gowda, G; Gupta, TRC; Rajesh, KM; Gowda, H; Lingadhal, C and Ramesh, AM (2001) Seasonal distribution of phytoplankton in Nethravathi estuary, Mangalore Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 43(1&2) 31-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • SMHI Available at - http://www.smhi.se/
  • Gopinathan, CP (1972) Seasonal abundance of phytoplankton in the Cochin backwaters Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India,Cochin 14(2) 568-577 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1566/
  • Kannan, L and Vasantha, K (1992) Microphytoplankton of the Pitchavaram mangals, southeast coast of India: species composition and population density Hydrobiologia Springer 247 77-86 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00008206
  • Sanilkumar, M G; Dr.Joseph, K J; Dr. Saramma, A V (2009) Planktonic Microalgae Microalgae in the Southwest Coast of India 34-114 Available at - http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/purl/1922
  • Perumal, NV; Rajkumar, M; Perumal, P and Rajasekar, KT (2009) Seasonal variations of plankton diversity in the Kaduviyar estuary, Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India Journal of Environmental Biology Academy of Environmental Biology 30(6) 1035-1046 Available at - www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200911_nov09/paper_19.pdf
  • Nair, PVR; Gopinathan, CP; Balachandran, VK; Mathew, KJ; Regunathan, A; Rao, DS and Murty, AVS (1984) Ecology of mudbanks - Phytoplankton productivity in Alleppey mudbank Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 31 28-35 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/733/1/Bulletin_No_31.pdf
  • Manikannan, R; Asokan, S and Ali, AHMS (2011) Studies on species composition of plankton in the great Vedaranyam swamp of the Point Calimere wildlife sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI 3(4) 283-289 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms3(4)11/4.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-02-29

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