Phialella quadrata   (Forbes,  1848) (Hydrozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Hydrozoa

Image copyrights: Creative Commons Attribution

Size: Diameter of umbrella up to 13 mm.

Umbrella nearly hemispherical; jelly fairly thick. Elongated gonads on outer third of the 4 radial canals, but not reaching the margin. 16-32 marginal tentacles with globular bases. No ocelli. 8 marginal vesicles. Stomach short with no peduncle. Mouth with 4 short lips, with slightly folded margins. Many have 4 black spots at the base of the stomach, visible from above, one in each interradius.

Synonym (s)
Phialella annulata (Lendenfeld, 1885)
Phialella hyaline (Lendenfeld, 1884)
Thaumantias quadrata Forbes, 1848
(Senior synonym)
Campanulina repens Allman, 1864
Epenthesis cymbaloidea (Slabber, 1775)
Epenthesis cymbaloidea (Slabber, 1775)
Thaumantias cymbaloides (Slabber, 1775)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Pelagic


• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Kerala, Alleppey INDIA
• Kerala, Kayamkulam INDIA
• Kerala, Neendakara INDIA
• Kerala, Paravur INDIA
• Kerala, Veli INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Conway, DVP; White, RG; Hugues-Dit-Ciles, J; Gallienne, CP and Robins, DB (2003) Guide to the coastal and surface zooplankton of the south western Indian Ocean Occasional publication no 15 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Occasional Publication of the Marine Biological association of the United Kingdom 354 pp Available at -
  • Panikkar, NK (1973) Hand book to the international zooplankton collections Volume. 5 Indian Ocean Biological Center 5 1-210 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Robin, RS; Srinivasan, M and Chandrasekar, K (2009) Distribution of Zooplankton from Arabian Sea, along Southern Kerala (Southwest Coast of India) During the Cruise Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences Maxwell Scientific Organization 1(3) 155-159 Available at -

Page last updated on:2010-12-22

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