Chaenogaleus macrostoma   (Bleeker,  1852) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO)

Size: Max length 100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed)

Color: Body dark grayish brown; fins gray, second dorsal fin dusky distally.

A small shark. Body moderately slender; snout long, its length slightly greater than mouth width, obtusely wedge-shaped toward tip; labial furrows moderately long and easily seen, the uppers ending well behind symphysis of lower jaw; anterior nasal flaps with a short, broad, triangular lobe: mouth long and parabolic, its length over 2/3 of the width; spiracles small; gill slits very long, the longest over twice the eye length; teeth in upper jaw with narrow, erect to oblique, high cusps and distal cusplets except for those at symphysis, entirely smooth-edged; teeth in lower jaw with arced roots and long, hooked, slender, mostly erect cusps that prominently protrude when mouth is closed, without cusplets or serrations. First dorsal fin moderately large, with a pointed or narrowly rounded apex and short inner margin, its origin slightly posterior to free rear tips of pectorals and the free rear tip anterior to pelvic fin origins; second dorsal fin high, about 2/3 of length of first, with a short inner margin less than fin height, and its origin slightly anterior to anal fin origin; pectoral and pelvic fins with straight or slightly concave inner margins; anal fin slightly smaller than second dorsal fin, without long preanal ridges; upper precaudal pit transverse and crescentic, no keels on caudal peduncle. Intestine with a spiral valve.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, bearers, internal live bearers. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), with 4 young in a litter. Size at birth at least 20 cm. Distinct pairing with embrace.

Synonym (s)
Hemigaleus balfouri Day, 1878
(Junior synonym)
Hemigaleus macrostoma Bleeker, 1852
(Senior synonym)
Hemigaleus microstoma (non Bleeker, 1852)
(Misapplied name)
Hemipristis elongatus (non Klunzinger, 1871)
(Misapplied name)
Negogaleus balfouri (Day, 1878)
(Junior synonym)
Negogaleus macrostoma (Bleeker, 1852)
(Senior synonym)
Chaenogaleus balfouri Misra, 1969

Common Name (s)
• Hooktooth Shark (English)
• Balfour's Shark (English)
• Miyaru (Mahl)
• Chichundri (Marathi)
• Pal Sorrah (Tamil)
• Ground Shark
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries; utilized fresh for human consumption and by-products processed into fishmeal.)

Habitat:  Demersal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, invertebrates, cephalopods, and crustaceans
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 2000-2002)
• Persian Gulf
• Lakshadweep Sea
• Kerala, Trivandrum INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Fisheries Harbour INDIA (Record: 01/2008-06/2009)

Literature Source(s)
  • Ali, S and Ripley, SD (1989) Compact handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan (II edition) Oxford University Press, New Delhi 39823
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Joshi, KK; Balachandran, K and Raje, SG (2008) Changes in the shark fishery at Cochin Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 103-105 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Akhilesh, KV; Ganga, U; Pillai, NGK; Vivekanandan, E; Bineesh, KK; Shanis, CPR and Hashim, M (2011) Deep-sea fishing for chondrichthyan resources and sustainability concerns-a case study from southwest coast of India Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences NISCAIR 40(3) 347-355 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-02-17

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