Negaprion acutidens   (Ruppell,  1837) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Max length 380 cm TL (male/unsexed)

Color: Body olive gray or yellowish brown, but often darker; belly yellowish or whitish.

Body stout. Snout short and broad, shorter than width of mouth; labial folds minute at mouth corners. Spiracles absent. Teeth in a single row, narrow, their cusps smooth edged and erect. Origin of first dorsal fin behind free rear tips of pectoral fin bases; second dorsal fin nearly as large as first. Pectoral fins broad and slightly falcate.

Dioecious, internal (oviduct) fertilization, internal live bearers. Viviparous, placental, 1-14 per litter. Gestation period 10-11 months. Size at birth about 50 to 70 cm TL; 45-80 cm TL. Distinct pairing with embrace. Mating and pupping take place during late spring and early summer.

Synonym (s)
Aprionodon acutidens Ruppell, 1837
(Senior synonym)
Aprionodon acutidens queenslandicus Whitley, 1939
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias acutidens Ruppell, 1837
(Senior synonym)
Carcharias forskalii Klunzinger, 1871
(Ambiguous synonym)
Carcharias munzingeri Kossmann & Rauber, 1877
(Junior synonym)
Eulamia odontaspis Fowler, 1908
(Junior synonym)
Hemigaleops fosteri Schultz & Welander, 1953
(Junior synonym)
Lamiopsis temmincki (non Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Misapplied name)
Mystidens innominatus Whitley, 1944
(Junior synonym)
Negaprion odontaspis Fowler, 1908
(Junior synonym)
Negaprion queenslandicus Whitley, 1939
(Junior synonym)
Odontaspis madagascariensis Fourmanoir, 1961
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias acutidens Ruppell, 1835
Carcharias ellioti Day, 1878
Aprionodon acutidens Misra, 1969

Common Name (s)
• Indian Lemon Shark (English)
• Indo Pacific Lemon Shark (English)
• Lemon Shark (English)
• Pilal (Tamil)
• Sharptooth Lemon Shark (English)
• Sharptooth Shark (English)
• Sicklefin Lemon Shark (English)
• Sickle Fin Lemon Shark (English)
• Sicklefin Lemo Shark (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries. Meat is utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, fins for shark-fin soup base, and liver oil for vitamins.
Traumatogenic. Dangerous if provoked.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Extremely susceptible to local inshore fisheries. Also likely to be affected by habitat destruction, for example, extensive coral reef habitat destruction (pollution and dynamite fishing), in addition, this species is known to occur around and within mangrove estuaries, many of which have been deforested or are heavily populated by humans throughout its range.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Smaller sharks, stingrays and on benthic bony fishes
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable


• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Fisheries Harbour INDIA (Record: 01/2008-06/2009)

Literature Source(s)
  • Ali, S and Ripley, SD (1989) Compact handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan (II edition) Oxford University Press, New Delhi 39823
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Compagno, LJV; Last, PR; Stevens, JD and MNR, Alava (2005) Checklist of Philippine Chondrichthyes CSIRO Marine Laboratories 104 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Akhilesh, KV; Ganga, U; Pillai, NGK; Vivekanandan, E; Bineesh, KK; Shanis, CPR and Hashim, M (2011) Deep-sea fishing for chondrichthyan resources and sustainability concerns-a case study from southwest coast of India Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences NISCAIR 40(3) 347-355 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-02-17

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