Littorina undulata [Status Unaccepted]   Gray,  1839 (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order:Littorinimorpha
Family:Littorinidae

Image copyrights: G. & Ph. Poppe

Description
Size: 23.9 mm.

Color: Yellowish brown, grayish violet.

Shell reaching 9 inch in length, turbinate in shape, average obesity about 0.58 (24 specimens range from 0.50 to 0.64) sculptured with spirally incised lines, overall microscopic wavy spiral threads and fine, but rather regular oblique axial lines of growth. External colour very variable: from a mottled yellowish gray to banded bark-brown, most often with white flammules on upper half, solid brown below; aperture light yellowish brown to dark yellowish brown sometimes with outside color markings showing through; columella usually grayish violet but sometimes lacking this colour and being white, edged with brown. Whorls 5-9, usually rather well roubded. Spire less than half the length of shell, convex, produced at an angle of about 58˚. Aperture broadly oval, outer lip thin in young individuals to moderately thick in adults; inner lip strongly produced, hardly concave, oblique, glazed with a grayish violet callus, pinched where it joins outer lip at base of columella.

Fertilization is internal, and pelagic development is the rule, although several species have evolved ovoviviparity.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Periwinkle (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Rocky

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Bay INDIA (Record: 1991)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kalpakkam INDIA (Record: 1987-1988)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat, Saurashtra INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Mohan, JM (1978) Ecological studies on the fauna associated with economic seaweeds of south India-1. species composition, feeding habits and interrelationships Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Tamil Nadu 3 17 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, NGM and Rao, MU (1986) Numerical study of intertidal zonation along Visakhapatnam coast, east coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 15 102-106 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Fernando, AS and Fernando, OJ (2002) A field guide to the common invertebrates of the east coast of India Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology 1-258 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Powell, AWB (1968) The Family Littorinidae in the Indo-Pacific Indo-Pacific Mollusca Delaware Museum of Natural History Grenville, Delaware, U.S.A 2(11) 417-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Poppe, GT and Poppe, P (1996) Conchology, Inc. Conchology, Inc. Available at - http://www.conchology.be/en/home/home.php
  • (2002) Lakshadweep Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Apte,D (1998) The book of Indian shells Oxford University Press 115
  • (1995) Hugali Matla estuary: West Bengal ZSI, Kolkatta 1-542
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Tikader, BK and Das, AK (1985) Glimpses of animal life of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, Kolkata 1-170 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ramakrishna; Sarkar, J and Talukdar, S (2003) Marine invertebrates of Digha coast and some recomendations on their conservation Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 101(3-4) 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Vijayakumar, R; Ansari, ZA and Parulekar, AH (1991) Benthic fauna of Kakinada bay and backwaters, east coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 20 195-199 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/3190/2/Indian_J_Mar_Sci_20_195.pdf
  • Jaiswar, AK and Kulkarni, BG (2001) Vertical distribution of molluscs in the intertidal area in and around Mumbai, India Journal of Indian fisheries association Indian fisheries association, Mumbai, India 28 93-100 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sasikumar, N; Rajagopal, S and Nair, KVK (1989) Seasonal and vertical distribution of macrofoulants in Kalpakkam coastal waters Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Scientific Publishers 18(4) 270-275 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-27

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